Lung and lung disease

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structure of lungs

lungs- lobed and highly branched tubules

trachae-ring of cartilage- prevents collapse when pressure falls
flexible airway, goblet cells- produce mucus- traps dirt

bronchi- supported by cartilage, two divisions of trachea- mucus
cilia- move dirt into stomach

bronchioles- branching sub-divisions, muscle layer- controls blood flow

collagen- fibrous protein that is the main constiuent of connective tissue such as tendons, cartilage and bone

alveoli- easily damaged, lined with epithelial cells
red blood cells slow- squamas- allowes time for diffusion
1 cell thick- thin diffusion path- large SA:V
air constantly moving, blood constantly moving- maintain diffusion gradient

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breathing in and out

extercostal muscles contract
intercostal muscles relax
diaphragm muscles contact- flattens
ribs pulled upwards and outwards
increases volume of thorax
decreasses pressure in lungs
air enters lung

extercostal muscles relax
intercostal muscles contract
diaphragm mucles relax
ribs move downwards and inwards
decreases volume of thorax
increases pressure in lungs than atmsophere
air pushed out of lungs

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pulmonary ventilitation

pulmonary ventilation = tidal volume x ventilation

tidal volume= normal breathing

residual volume= left over air in lungs

ventilation= breaths per minute


pulmonary ventilation= dm-1

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pulmonary fibrosis

theurpeutic options to maintain quality of life
no effective treatment

chronic dry cough- obstruction to lungs- body tries to remove this- cannot move so cough is dry
fatigue- reduced intake of oxygen- less respiration can occur- less energy produced
pain- pressure from fibrous tissues- scarring
shortness of breath- thickened epithelium- diffusion pathway increase- less oxygen absorbed- less oxygen for respiration


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shortness of breath- loss of elasticy, leads to difficult inhaling and exhaling, less oxygen available for respiration
chroni cough- try to remove damaged tissues and mucus- cilia
bluish skin- poor diffusion in lungs, less oxygen absorbed for respiration

no cure
try to slow progression and reduce symptoms
treat obstructed airways to improve quality of life

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rod-shaped bacteria
waterborne-air droplets
overcrowded- grow and divide is lungs as there is a high concentration of oxygen
white blood cells ingest bacteria

drugs for 6-9 months

persistant cough
coughing up blood
loss of appetite

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10% of worlds population affected

genetic, exercise
stress, temperature
air pollution, pollen
dust mites, fur

avoid causes, cleaner liftestyle
asthma pump

difficult breathing due to constricted bronchi- inflamed airways and lining
additional mucus and fluid
try to clear airways- coughing
tight feeling and wheezing- constricted bronchi

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shrew vs seas cucumber

high metabolic rate
high respiratory
warm blooded

need more oxygen to maintain temperature and give energy for movement

sea cucumber
contract muscular wall- expels and draws water
low metabolic rates
cold blooded

need less oxygen as does not need to maintain temperature or need much energy for movement

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