lung diseases and their effects

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Pulmonary Tuberculosis

- When someone becomes infected with tuberculosis bacteria, immune system cells build a wall around he bacteria in the lungs. This forms a hard lump known as tubercles.

- Infected tissue will die, and the gaseous exchange surface is damaged, so the tidal volume decreases ( less air is inhaled with each breath ).

- It can also cause fibrosis.

---> Common symptoms :

         Coughing up blood and mucus

         Chest pain

         Increase in ventilation rate 

         Shortness of breath

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Fibrosis

- Fibrosis is the formation of scar tissue in the lungs.

- This can be result of an infection.

- Scar tissue is thicker and less elastic compared to the normal lung tissue.

- This means lungs are less able to expand, reducing the tidal volume.

- Diffusion is harder and slower over a thicker diffusion membrane.

- The sufferers have a faster ventilation rate.

---> Symptoms: 

         Shortness of breath and feeling weak

         Dry cough and chest pain

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Asthma

- Asthma is a respiratory condition, where the airway becomes to inflamed.

- Usually caused by allergic reaction to substances like pollen and dust.

- During asthma attack, the smooth muscles lining of the bronchioles contract and large amount of muses is produced.

- This blocks the airway, making it difficult to breath.

- Air flow is severally reduced

---> Symptoms 

Wheezing and tight chest 

Shortness of breath

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Emphysema

- Emphysema is a lung disease caused by smoking or long term exposure to air pollution.

- It happens when small particles (smoke) get trapped in the alveoli.

- This causes inflammation, which attract phagocytes to gather around the area, and produce enzymes that breaks down elastin of the tissue.

- Without elastin, alveoli loses its elasticity, so it can no longer expand, and will collapse.

- This reduce the gas exchange, Increasing ventilation rate.

---> Symptoms

      Shortness of breath and wheezing 

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