- Created by: 12rmccarthy
- Created on: 26-03-17 16:15
William Golding fought in World War 2.
Links between Nazi party and LOTF:
- The Nazi's rejected democracy, Hitler demanded loyalty and obedience. Jack is a Hitler-like figure, he siezes power and doesn't like the democracy. He demands Sam and Eric to join the tribe.
- Fear prevented many people from speaking out against Nazi's crimes- Sam and Eric feel helpless to stand up to Jack's power
- Himmler was an important figure in Nazi party- he was in charge in organising the concentration camps. Roger reflects Himmler as he carries out the voilent crimes for Jack. He becomes the executioner and torturer.
- Contrast between Ralph and Jack is the contrast between Democracy and Dictatorship
- At the end, the bys are rescued and and are going home- but Golding makes it clear that they're going back to a savage, war-torn society.
- In the 1950's, Britain had a large empire across the world. They would go into countires and take them over. The boys treat the island in a similar way, Ralph says 'This belongs to us'
- But the British empire had started to break up in 1950's- mirros boys in novel as their society breaks into pieces
- Being British implied many values and standards. Ralph, Piggy etc always try to reinforce these but jack ditches them by the end.
Many people presumed that a privileged background and good schooling automatically produced decent human beings. Golding opposes this.
- Most of the boys are from middle/upper class backgrounds so would be expected to be self-disciplined and reasonable at home. But savage behaviour shows these values arent instinctive.
- Piggy is from a lower social class- way he speaks etc- but turns out to be one of the nicest and most intelligent boys. So social class doesnt determine how worthwile you are.
Context continued 2
- Jack and choir- elite public school. Formal unifrom, religious etc and so would follow a strong heirarchy and controlled existence
- Strict discipline hasnt given them self-control- just made it easier for them to follow and obey their leader (Jack) when they descend into savagery.
- Suspect that their strict upbringing is the reason why they rebel- want to be wild for a change.
Goldings novel is a mockery of 3 books based on islands- he wants to portray more realistic versions of what actually happens when you leave a group of boys deserted on an island.
- Boys mention that they think they are resembling 'Treasure Island' and 'Swallows and Amazons'
- But Golding mocks 'Coral Island' which is about 3 boys shripwrecked on an Island who find great adventure. He deliberately uses the same names of Jack and Ralph.
- He proves his story is more realistic than Coral Island as he takes scenes from it and intensifies them. Allusion
- Golding tries to challenge British stereotypes of being civilised as evil comes from within the boys
Civilisation and Barbarity:
Allegorical novel- Golding presents his main ideas through symbolic objects and characters
- Boys make rules on the Island similar to the rules they have at school. Eg taking a register and putting their hands up to speak.
- The rules from at home stop them being too violent at first- Roger doesnt throw stones at Henry because of the "taboo of his old life"
- Jack says they need rules because they are not savages- irony
- Piggy's anxious to protect the rules- wisdom
- Civilised values begin to fade- boys increasing violence shows their gradual slip from civilisation into savagery. Eg everyone starts going to the toilet everywhere, brutal murdering of animals, letting fire go out, primitive rules- eg chants
The new society that evolves is selfish and violent
- Not interested in rescue and whats best for the group
- described as animals
- Violent punishments are given- boys are beaten and tortoured for no reason
Civilisation and Barbarity continued:
- Show discipline- their British values
- as they get dirty and torn, they're ********* away their old values
- Jack is naked near beginning of novel, Ralph and Piggy keep clothes on for as long as possible
- Jack face paints- frees him from civilised rules. Liberation into savagery. Almost like a mask so they dont have to take individual responsibility for the violence
- Ralph's group try to make themselves presentable by bathing, sorting out their hair etc- contrast with Jack's naked painted tribe
- Officer who rescues them is wearing a white uniform, yet he's at war- civilised appearances hide darkness of mans heart.
Golding implies that savagery is a more natural instinct than civilisation- Piggy and Ralph join in with Simons murder
Golding uses the beast to show the boys fear (annagorical)
- As the boys get more frightened, they act more savagely. This makes them more scared as they think the beast is getting stronger.
- The real beast is the evil inside each of the boys- Simon realises this which is ironic as he is killed because the boys mistake him for the beast
- Descriptions of the beast keep changing so the reader realises early on that its imaginary
- The three most rational characters R,S, P try to convince the others the beast doesnt exist.
Jack uses the boys fear to control them
- Jack convinces people to join his tribe by saying that his hunters will protect them from the beast
- He tells them the beast can never be killed, which leaves them threatened and jack more powerful
- Golding doesnt make it clear if Jack's scared of the beast- perhaps he realises it represents his dark side, he refers to it as a hunter
Power and Leadership
- When they first arrive they want rescue and rules so Ralph is apppointed leader
- As they become more savage, their needs get more basic- they just want food, safety and certainity. Jack's dictatorial leadership appeals now
Ralph as a leader:
- Responsible- uses his power to protect people- stands up for Piggy and looks after Littluns
- Ralph wants them to live by rules- only thing that links them to their old lives
- Doubts his ability to lead the group and wishes he could be like Piggy
- He becomes disillusionised at how difficult it is to keep people focuses on taks like fire and shelters.
- Conch- represents authority and deomocracy
- Craves power but doesnt want the responsibility that comes with it
- Originally hes not elected, so he challenges Ralph's power and eventually steals it
- Jacks power, maintained through violence and fear symbolised by 'Stick sharpened at both ends'. The society hes created is self destructive- hurts hunter and prey.
- The island is a tropical paradise- sandy beches etc
- Like the Garden of Eden- perfect place until they learn about good and evil and lose their innocence.
- Nature is sinister- creepers- tangle, fruit- diarrhoea
- Pathetic fallacy- night Simon dies- wild and thundery
Nature is personified all throughout the novel as targeting the boys
The boys damage the island- but the nature repairs it eg the scar from the plane- the plane wreckage swept out to sea and undergrowths start to grow over the scar. It's the boys who'll never be the same again.
at beginning accidently set fire to half of the island burning all fruit trees and wood, but by the end fire is used as a weapon
The boys destruction of the island symbolises mans destruction of nature- war?
- At the beginning, boys act innocently playing regular games eg building sandcastles and playing in water.
- Violence soon creeps in-Littluns try to replace the civilisation they've lost by recreating it with sandcastles with railway lines, walls etc
- Roger and Maurice destory them- rejection of civilisation
- As group gets more savage hunting dances change from games to soomething more serious- foreshadows Simons death
- Chapter 4- Roger throws stones delibritely to miss- shows values, but by chapter 11 hes throwing them to hurt Ralph and Piggy and Piggy is eventually killed when Roger roles a boulder on him
- Jack steals Piggy's glasses 'as a game' and it takes a while for Ralph and Piggy to realise that hes not going to give them back because its the correct thing to do
- Naval officer thinks the hunt is just games- irony
Golding uses darkness to represent evil:
- Choir described as 'somehing dark'
- In the dark the littluns have nightmares which leads to their fear of the beast
- Simon murdered on a dark night- darkness panics boys in to believing hes the beast
- Ralph wheeps at the end of the novel for 'darkness of mans heart'- all evil exists in man
Some characters have stronger evil instincts than others- Jack and Roger execute most of the violent acts
Ralph and Piggy recognise their evil and try to contain it by following society's moral rules.
Simons goodness is overpowered by all the boys evil
Pigs head on a stick:
- left as an offering for the beast- shows boys fear
- Pig tells simon 'Im part of you' - this is Golding showing that its the fear thats causing evil inside them to emerge
- 'Lord of the Flies' - when it speaks its like the voice of evil talking- it sounds cynical, knowing evil will always win. It speaks like a 'schoolmaster' and Simon realises the adult world is corrupt too.
- When Ralphs being hunted, he break the LOTF and uses the stick to hunt. He destroys the symbol of evil but hes prepared to hunt so hes been corrupted by evil.
- Ralph represents the theme of civilisation
- Fair- literally and metaphorically- fair play- shocked when Jack takes Piggy's glasses
- He takes charge of the boys and provides law and order
- Clings to hope of rescue and return to civilisation
- Brave- even though he doesnt always feel it- he makes himself go first to castle rock
- Fair- democracy
he isnt always perfect- reminded he's just a young boy- eg when he says Piggy's name to the group and gets involved in teasing of Piggy. Golding involves Ralph in the theme of evil to show that there's evil in everyone
His relationship with Piggy
- At first hes irritated by Piggy's questions and scornful of his clumsiness and asthma- enjoys teasing him
- By the time the beast comes about- Ralph realises Piggys a "good thinker"- he relies more and more on Piggy's sense and intelligence- when hes being hunted wishes Piggy was there
Characters- Ralph continued
Relationship with Jack:
- At first it looks like Jack and Ralph could be friends- they smile at eachother with 'shy liking'.
- They fall oout when Jack's too bus hunting and having fun to build shelters and look after the fire. This is the first sign that they cant resolve the conflict between fun and responsibility.
- Ralph uses conflict between Ralph and Jack to represent conflict between civilisation and barbarity on island
- Ralph and Jacks rocky relationship creates rocky tension with reader- only one can win
Ralphs emotions change:
- Show how the storys changing from one exciting adventure into one of terrifying violence
- At first Ralphs delighted with the island and the idea of no grown ups. Hes confident he'll be rescued
- He later feels 'wearisomeness' and 'insecure'
- Ralph then feels despair at the end- the boys are rescued but his innocent view of a decent view is lost forever- "darkness of mans heart"
He's an outsider
- His appearace is comical to the other boys
- also not very well spoken and doesnt have a sense of humour
- vunerable- Jack breaks his glasses and mimics him
- others dont take him seriously- tell him to shut up when he has ideas- ironic as hes the wisest
He cares about proper behaviour
- always reminding people about the conch
- always reminds them Ralph is chief
- Tells Jack he should give his glasses back because 'its the right thing to do'- shows bravery
- Wonders what grown ups would do and say
Characters- Piggy continued
Acts as an adult:
- he says the boys are like 'a crowd of kids' when they all rush off to make a fire
- Never joins in with the boys games- he keeps him seperate which makes it even more shocking when hes involved in Simons murder
- Piggy is less in tune with nature than the others- explains why his hair doesnt grow
- he's kind to the littluns- helps birthmark boy speak out loud in assembly- he feels confident with them because they're smaller and younger
Loyal and supportive to Ralph:
- At first wasnt sure on him- only votes him for chief 'grudgingly' but once he gets to know him, they stick together
- Offers advice to Ralph- night of Simons death tells him to 'come away'
- He keeps his faith in Ralph as chief
Piggy's a logical thinker- sundial, fire on the beach. His logic stops him from seeing how far from civilisation the others have slipped
Jack wants to be in control:
- bad tempered and nasty
- bosses the choir around but they dont actually like him- they vote him for chief with 'dreary obedience'
- Jack is the most obvious leader
- hates Ralph being in charge and challenges his leadership- saying Ralph cant hunt so he has no right to tell them what to do
- Makes up rules to suit himself '******** to the rules'
- Jack doesnt see the value in building shelters/ fire- rejecting civilisation
- Arrogant - 'i ought to be chief'
He prefers fun to responsibility- hes the first character to forget the possibility of rescue.
Jack thinks he'll be a good leader but he doesnt look after the weaker ones in the group- bullies Piggy, calls Littluns crybabies and doesnt help
Characters- Jack continued
He's naturally violent and aggresive:
- vicious with words- 'fatty' 'shut up'
- Punches Piggy
- Shoots knife into tree near beginning- foreshadows his later behaviour
- When he has his own tribe- becomes a dictator- uses violence to control them, eg Wilfred is tied up and beaten for no reason
- Jack hurls spear directly at Ralph- deliberate.
- jack represents Golding's idea that evil is in everyone but it comes out if rules of society are taken away
jack's sense of pride makes him cruel- uses boys as servents . Losing vote for chief damages his pride and so sets himself against Ralph at the begninning
He becomes more and more obsessed with hunting:
- first to hunt and kill a pig
- "compulsion to track down and kill"
- Golding describes him as an animal-'mysterious beast'
Shy and physically weak
- Kind "simon found for them the fruit they could not reach"
- Perceptive "maybe theres a beast, maybe its only us"
- Finds it hard to express his feelings to the group- reminds the reader that hes only a young boy
- Simon represents the goodness inside humans. His weaknesses show that evil is stronger.
- Comforts Ralph
- Feeds Piggy
- only person to recognise the beast isnt real. Ironic as hes killed by them as mistaken for beast
Characters- Simon continued
- Jesus- never does anything to harm anyone, hands out food, makes prediction about the future, he dies because he tries to tell the others the truth and they reject it
- Descriptions of Simon sound religious 'water surrounds his hea with brightness' as in halo
- After simons death, weather becomes calm and sea gently sweeps him out to sea as if nature is mourning his death.
- Simons secret part of the forest- full of 'candle buds' gives church sense. It remains calm until hunters place LOTF flies- demonstrates that evil destroys innocence.
- Conversation between Simon and LOTF- between good and evil
- brutal- teeth and bare hands used
- animals like savagery
- his murder is the point of no return- boys can't return to civilisation
- Ralph and Piggy involved- shows what even the most decent humans are capeable of
Plot summary- Chapter 1
- Ralph comes out of jungle on to beach followed by Piggy
- Find a conch shell- Piggy knows what it is and suggests to use it to call the others- intelligence first portrayed
- Bunch of choirboys arrive- marching obediently- they're already a group of their own
- They're described as something dark- suggests evil inside them
- No grow up on the islands- the boys get excited but dont know how to behave
- Piggy mentions an 'atom bomb' - suggests world of war and violence
Chapter is very optimistic:
- Ralph elected as chief- everyone accepts this even Jack.
- So far they're sticking to rules of their old life and trying to re-create the society they're used to
- Boys are triumphant when they reach the top of the mountain- feel as though they've conquered the island which is ironic as the island destroys them
- Golding uses descriptive language to describe beautiful setting.
Plot summary- Chapter 1 continued
Hints of conflict and danger to come
- Jack's humiliated when Ralphs elected chief- suggests there might be tension between the two boys later on
- Jacks furstrated when he fails to kill a piglet- beginning of the obsession of hunting which tears the group later on
- description of the island isnt friendly- heat is a 'threatening weight' - Golding hints their time on the island wont be all fun and adventure
- Boys bully Piggy- they think its acceptable according to the rules of their old lives- sets Piggy up as an outsider
Plot Summary- Chapter 2
At the beginning of the chapter all going well but by the end its clear the story isnt going to be all fun and games
- Rules are established by Ralph based on school rules, hes trying to maintain civilised behaviour. Conch introduced as symbol of democracy- linked to Ralph
- Jacks excited about having rules because he wants to punish anyone that breaks them- dictator
- Contrast between Ralph wanting rules to live together fairly and jack wanting rules so he can control the boys
First signs of fear shown
- Piggy mentions they could be there for a long time which frightens the boys
- Littlun said he saw a 'snake like beast' -ralph tries to explain its not true but hard to persuade
- As soon as suggested- rules are forgotten as boys desire to have fun is stronger
- Fire out of control which kills a Littlun- boys are shocked and ashamed- moral values still there. This changes atmosphere of story to danger
Plot Summary- Chapter 3
- Jacks determined to kill a pig. Hes already ditched his uniform, hair has grown and carries a sharp stick- already losing British values
- Throws stick at pig but misses- no longer held back by civilisation
Difference between Jack and Ralph
- argue about their different priorities- Ralph wants to build shelters and keep fire going but jack wants to hunt. Golding uses this tension to show tension between civilisation + savagery
- "baffled in love and hate"
- Jack tries to justify his desire to hunt saying its for everyones benefit- later no longer justifies it- difference between civilisation and savagery
- Shows kindness by picking fruit for Littluns that they can't reach- provides them with food like Jack does but doesnt expect anything in return
- finds a spot in forest- spiritual atmosphere
Plot Summary- Chapter 4
Violence begins to creep in:
- Roger and Maurice kick over Littluns sandcastles-Maurice feels ashamed
- Roger throws stone at Littlun but aims to miss- British values still there
- Jack paints himself a mask- 'awesome stranger' - descent into savagery
Boys have a chance of rescue:
- Ralph, Piggy and Simon see a ship but Ralphs taken everyone hunting and let the fire out
- Boys are losing sight of the reason for the fire- desire to hunt is taking over
- Hunters were upset when they realised whats happened- old lives still there
- Fire going out brings tension between J and R into the open
- Jacks frustrated- takes it out by htting Piggy and breaking his glasses- sign that Piggy's wisdom is becoming less important
- Jack apologises and hands out meat- earn boys respect which helps him gain control and power over them
- Ralph announces he's calling an assembly with conch- still has authority and democracy
Plot Summary- Chapter 5
Ralph realises things are going wrong
- doubts his ability to be chief
- Dirty unifrom and long hair makes him realise how far from civilisation they've slipped
- He calls an assembly to remind the boys of the rules
- Shelters represent civilisation- all helped to build first one which is strong, only P and R built last one- tottery. Without all the boys working together- society doesnt work
- Ralph sees fear of beast is damaging the group- tries to persuade them its nothing
- Piggy says the only thing to fear is people, Simon says the beast is actually themselves- no one takes them seriously
- Jack insists they'll hunt it down- gives Jack more power
- Phil mistakes Simon for the beast- foreshadows Simons murder
Rules of the conch becoming less important- Jack speaks without it and S+P get shouted down when they have it.
Ralph says rules are the only thing theyve got, Jack says '******** to the rules'
Plot Summary- Chapter 6
Dead airman lands on island:
- reminder war is going on in outside world
- Sam and Eric spot him and mistake him for beast- exaggerating their story to make boys fear
Ralph and Jack have different plans to deal with the beast
- Ralph wants to think things through- Jack wants to track it immediately
- boys fear of the beast is more immediate than the boys desire to be rescued- tips in favour of Jacks leadership. Ralph only keeps his leadership by agreeing to hunt.
- Ralph is terrified when they get to castle rock but forces himself to go first as thats what a chief does. He needs to seem brave to prevent jack from taking leadership.
- R+J's different reactions reflect their different leaership styles- how civilised and savage
- jack- good place for a fort, Ralph thinks its awful place to live- no water, food, shelter- civil
- game of rolling boulders developed here- foreshadows Piggy's death
Plot Summary- Chapter 7
Ralph feels trapped:
- While they're off looking for the beast Ralph looks out into sea- begins to think of it as a barrier that keeps them away from civilisation
- Golding uses descriptive language to show how alone/cut off from civilised world they are
- Simons prophecy that Ralph will get home helps Ralph feel controlled
Ralph joins Pig hunt
- gets carried away and begins to understand how appealing hunting is.
- Jack puts Ralph down saying he threw badly- making him seem like hes the leader
- Ralphs involvement in the hunt is a further step towards savagery.
- the boys re-enact the hunt- Jack pretends to kill robert- Ralph feels ueasy
- jack suggests next time they'll use a Littlun to re-enact with- kill
Ralph wants to wait till morning to hunt for beast but Jack accuses him of being frightened so they go as none of them want to look like cowards
The boys fear of looking like cowards makes them go up in the dark and mistake the dead airman- beast is a reflection of their own fear and savagery
Plot Summary- Chapter 8
Jack tries to take over as chief:
- Jack blows the conch and calls for another election. He loses- but secretly boys begin to join his tribe
- Jack manipulates the others fear of the beast by saying joining the tribe will make themsafe as the hunters will deal with it
- Ralph refers to hunters as "boys armed with sticks" - mirrors naval officers words at the end. Shows Ralph sees them from an adult perspective.
Jacks group viciously kill a pig:
- Jack declares himself leader of the new group without a vote
- Slaughter a pig- smear blood on faces- finding it funny. Contrasts with jacks failure to kill piglet in chapter 1
- Jack leaves pigs head for beast .
- Jacks group find camp on the unfriendly side of the island whilst ralphs stays by homely shelters
Plot Summary- Chapter 8 continued
Simon finds LOTF:
- Simons terrified of it
- He sees it represents evil inside of everyone- he's afraid it's in him too
- He has a choice- to accept his savage side and have fun with the others or ignore the threat and try and stop the other boys from descending into savagery
- He warns the others- shows bravery and goodness
Plot Summary- Chapter 9
Simon finds dead airman:
- he understands that its the 'beast' and needs to tell the others its harmless
- Piggy senses that trouble is coming- he urges they go to Jack's tribal feast to make sure nothing bad happens
- Golding creates this suspense through bad weather
Jacks power grows:
- Everyone attends Jacks feast- attracted by promise of meat and 'partly secure society' of the larger group
- Jack's abusing his power- ordering boys around
- He uses false promises to get the boys to joing his tribe
- he says the conch doesnt work at this end of the island- rejecting democracy and civilisation
Plot Summary- Chapter 9 continued
Murder of Simon;
- Ralph points out storm is coming but Jack doesnt have any shelters. Boys react 'uneasily' suggesting they're still drawn to civilisation
- Jack distracts the boys by telling them to dance
- Simon crawls into the middle of the dance- hes described as the beast
- Tribe are confused, scared by darkness and storm and distracted by the dancing
- Boys recognise its Simon but are too scared to stop
- They act as a 'single organism' and murder simon.
- They kill him without words- just with power of teeth and claws. They've become inhuman
- Storm reaches climax during dance- pathetic fallacy
- After Simons death, very peaceful atmosphere to portray Simons innocent and spiritual nature.
Plot Summary- Chapter 10
Boys react to Simons murder in different ways:
- Ralph is the only character who admits its murder. Still civilised enough to take responsibility for his actions
- Piggy makes an excuse "we were only on the outside" and it was only an accident- he wont accept that the savagery he sees in jack is also in him
- Jack tells the tribe they attacked the beast, but it cant be killed. he said the beast was in disguise and they'll have to kill again if it happens again
Ralph has lost all his power to Jack
- Only few of them left- Piggy insists Ralph is still chief
- Ralph "cradles" the Conch - trying to get some comfort from the symbol of civilisation. But its useless now
Jacks tribe steal Piggy's glasses
- attack at night and steals glasses to make a fire- first act of planned violence towards other humans.
- Ralph forgets what the fire is for. Its dead- no hope.
Plot Summary- Chapter 11
- Ralphs surprised the tribe didnt take the conch- hes naive that the conch doesnt mean anything to Jacks group
- Ralphs group still obey the conch
- Piggy believes that if he goes to Jack's tribe holding the conch, he will return his glasses to him because its 'the right thing to do' - oblivious.
- Ralph blows the conch at castle rock but no one replies- both conch and ralph have lost authority
Atmosphere at Castle Rock:
- Golding doesnt name the boys in the tribe- just refers to them as savages.
- At first the savages are trying to defend the entrance- get agressive towards Ralph
- Fight between Jack and Ralph- Ralph still believes Jack can 'see reason'- doesnt realise he's no longer bound by morals
Plot Summary- Chapter 11 continued
- symbolises death of logic, reason and wisdom
- Piggy points out to the tribe how savage they've become- boys are angry but Roger calm
- Roger pushes boulder off cliff to Piggy and kills him and destroys the conch- symbol of civilisation and democratic leadership
- Tribe jeer and scream- but as soon as they realise Piggys dead- utter silence. Shocked.
- Simons was accidental but Piggys deliberate
- Jack and Roger are so savage they feel no guilt
- Jack tries to kill Ralph but he escapes
- Ralphs now a hunted animal not a civilised human
Ralph realises his life is in danger:
- He tries to convince himself Piggy's death was an accident
- Sam and Eric tell him Roger has a stick sharpened at both ends- Ralph doesnt understand but reader recognises they plan to do the same to Ralph as the LOTF (head on stick)
- Tribe lights a fire to 'smoke ralph out'
Ralph is saved by a naval officer:
- Run into a naval officer on the beach.
- Ironically the fire that was trying to smok Ralph out attracted a ship
- At their most barbaric- boys managed to make sure they're returning to civilisation
- Officer naive of whats been going on - adventure story
- Shocked when Ralph tells him two boys have been killed.
- Ralph bursts into tears because although he's been rescued- he's lost his innocence.
- Realises there's evil in everyone but its only bound back by society's rules.
- Neither civilisation nor barbarity wins at the end- savages dont kill Ralph
- Boys go back to a world of war- understanding the nature of mans evil (heart)