urban issues and challenges geography case study gcse


East Village London advantages


  • 10,000 new homes by 2030; old athlete's village, 40% affordable
  • a new academy has been built; all levels of education


  • over 20,000 jobs by 2030; bring 5 billion to the area
  • commuters can travel easily; second most connected in london


  • new green spaces created; providing habitats for wildlife
  • built on brownfield site; decontaminated the area
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East Village London disadvantages


  • 450 housing association flats torn down
  • still high levels of unemployment


  • rent and property prices increased due to the olympics
  • old businesses whic employed locals were forced to move


  • olympics produced 3.3 million tonnes of co2
  • lots of wildlife had to be relocated
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Urban transport in Bristol

in 2012 it was the second most congested city in the UK


  • ITS ( integrated transport system) promotes green travel
  • links different kinds of transport with public transport
  • 100 electric car charging points were installed
  • aiming to double the number of cyclists by 2020
  • planning to electrify the Bristol-London trainline


has a higher % of people walking and cycling than any other UK city at 57% 

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urban challenges in London


  • high levels of knife crime/gang-related crime
  • shortage of houses and flats
  • good schools are seriously oversubscribed
  • very densely populated
  • serious social inequality between the rich and the poor


  • high levels of unemployment
  • it's too expensive to live in the city so you must commute
  • large strain on health services to meet the population
  • lots of people are homeless/benefits
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international urban migration in london


  • pull factor of good jobs/culture/quality of life
  • push factor of fleeing war zones
  • windrush generation


  • most culturally-diverse population in the UK
  • puts a strain on already struggling services
  • culture is celebrated- notting hill festival
  • culture chinatown
  • culture- food and restaurants are diverse and better
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opportunities in Rio


  • better access to health and transport facilities
  • favelas offer a community spirit
  • better help from the government than in the countryside


  • employment opportunities although mostly informal
  • cities tend to be more developed than the countryside
  • jobs are more reliable than farming
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challenges in Rio


  • only 55% have a local family health clinic
  • only half stay in education after 14 (poverty cycle)
  • dangerous and unhygienic living conditions in the favelas


  • poorest 50% earn the same as the richest 1%
  • informal jobs provide no guaranteed salary


  • air pollution kills 5,000 people a year (estimated)
  • landslides are frequent on the steep slopes of favelas
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urban planning to improve the lives of the urban p

main previous problems:

  • high murder rate and gang-related crime
  • most employment is poorly paid in the informal sector
  • favelas and dangerously and illegally built

favela Bairro project:

  • cablecar de Alemao- free return ticket a day to residents
  • Pacifying Police UNit (UPP) patrol communities to reduce crime
  • paved and formally named roads helps control growth
  • teach residents the skills to safely make their own houses

However, more training is needed to improve literacy and employment

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