How life was better
- Small businesses were better off, Jewish competition & department stores were banned by Hitler
- The no. of self- employed craftsmen fell from 1 650 00 to 1 500 000 but their value doubled
- Farmers were really important, debts were written off and prices rose but the government meddled too much, introducing lots of (unpopular) legistlation
- Lots of money was spent on motorways, creating jobs & showing off Germany
- Unemployment dropped from 6 014 000 to 302 000
- Workers had to join the DAF & had little rights but were rewarded with schemes like 'Strength through Joy'
- Volksgemeinschaft- National Community- people were firstly German and proud of it. Germany's interests came before their own, but this policy wasn't totally sucessful.
Life for Women
- They were rewarded for the no. children they had by 'The Honour Cross of the German Mother'- Gold cross for 8, Silver for 6 and Bronze for 4 & in 1936 there were 30% more births than in 1933, but how did the women feel who couldn't have children
- Unmarried women could get pregnant by a racially pure SS man
- Employment increased despite Nazi measures, but their salary was 2/3 of men and in 1939 less working than before the depression
- Once a month they had to make a stew using leftovers and the SA came to check this was being done
- There were some prominent Nazi women, but it was just for show
- By 1930 more workers were needed but Nazis didn't want women to work
- Loans were offered to brides who wouldn't work, 800 000 took up the offer
- Women were ideally blonde, blue eyed, healthy, non smokers and wide hipped. They encouraged their children to join youth groups and be loyal to Hitler.
- Many women their proper role was to support their husbands and not work, but for many didn't like having to quit their jobs after the freedom of Weimar Germany
- Girls were encouraged to be mothers in the German Maidens Leadue
Life for Children
Hitler wanted to create a 'thousand year reich' and he was going to do this by controlling the young. In education, teachers were made to swear an oath. Textbook were re-written with Nazi ideas and there was more PE and no RS.
School leavers had to work, there was technical/vocational training avalible if you left at 16, and only 15% went into higher education. Overall, standards fell.
The Hitler youth was made compulsory in 1936 & other organisations were banned. In 1933 there were 2 million hitler youth, in 1936 in was over 7 million. It indoctrinated children, make soldiers, and make children see themselves as only German.
The boys learnt to be loyal to Hitler, believe Nazi policies and carry on generations. The girls became good women by beinh healthy to bear children and learn social skills for later community work, and follow the Nazi way of life. These organisations were exciting and fun.
Young People who were against the Nazis
Youth organisation's popularity was decreasing and two Organisations the Nazis were worried about popped up, The Swing Movement & the Edelweiss Pirates.
The swing movemnet were middle class teenagers who the Nazis didnt like, they danced to swing music, wore different clothes and accepted jews. The Nazis were outraged & tried to punish them harshly. They issued a handbook on how to identify them.
The Edelweiss pirates working class teenagers who opposed the hitler youth & were in many different cities. In Cologne, some of their activities caused serious worry- they sheltered deserters, concentration camp escapees & attacked military targets & Nazi officials.12 ringleaders of the Cologne pirates were publically hanged, but the Nazis were unsure about how to deal with the rest, as they needed future soldiers.
The Economy: The 4 year plan by Hermann Goering
Goering was a powerful Nazi and his plan from 1937 was to build up the Armed forces and get Germany ready for war by making it self dependant. This was known as Autarky.
He reintroduced conscription, which reduced unemployment and created jobs for equipment and uniform manufacture. Engineers & designers had new opportunities and as well as economic recovery, there was a sense of national pride after Versailles.
There was a huge improvement but in 1938 exports exceeded imports. In 1939 germany still relied on a third of foreign imports and Hitler realised he needed to conquer other countries to become completely self-sufficient.
The Economy: The New Plan by Dr Schacht
Schacht was an economist who who organised Germnay's finances and wanted to fund new jobs and work. he was very popular.
From 1934-37, he limited imports which made Germany less vunerable and dependant, he made trade agreements with other countries so in time Germany would have evrything it needed and he created jobs in public work projects like the autobahns, housing & railways.
He achieved the aims of his plan and unemployment decreased. More people had jobs, like he wanted.