Modern medicine

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Liberal Welfare Act

  • Free school meals - 1906
  • School medical inspections - 1907
  • Old age pensions act - 1909
  • Labour exchange (job centres) - 1909
  • National insurance Act - 1911
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Edwin Chadwick

  • Published a 'Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Laboring Population of Great Britain'
  • His idea was that improved public health and healthy workforce would save money rather than cost
  • The report and statistics describing levels of sickness and mortality shocked privileged classes
  • People  campaigned for improvements and in 1844, the Health of Towns Association was set up
  • Government passed a public health bill becoming the first Public Health Act in 1848 following the cholera epidemic
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Florence Nightingale; 

  • Came from a rich family who disapproved of Florence's choice
  • Hospitals were dirty and unsanitary
  • Was asked to go to the Crimea to organise nursing
  • She insisted on cleanliness which reduced death rate
  • The public was so impressed that £50,000 was raised to pay for a School for nurses
  • She understood that fresh air, clean water and sunlight was essential for good health

Elizabeth Blackwell; 

  • First woman in modern times to qualify as doctor
  • Was an American teacher
  • Taught herself baud science because it wasn't taught to girls
  • Medical schools refused her but a small college in New York accepted her
  • At up a successful clinic in that City for women and children

Sophia Jex-Blake; 

  • Gained entry to Edinburgh university but refused a degree
  • Co-founded London School of Medicine
  • Gained own qualification from University of Bern

Elizabeth Garret; 

  • Had good education
  • Qualified in Paris where they would accept her as a doctor
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Sir William Beveridge

  • Published his famous Beveridge Report, calling for the state provision of social security "from the cradle to the grave"
  • Was a bestseller, he argued that people should have the right to be free from want, disease, ignorance etc
  • After hearing about this Nye Bevan (the Labour Minister for Health) introduced the NHS
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Technology in diagnostics

  • Medical imaging using sound waves (ultrasound) allows doctors to build a picture of What's going on inside the body
  • MRI scanner uses radio waves and magnets to visualise internal structures of body
  • Fibre-optic cables inside an endoscope allows doctors to look inside body, for instance during keyhole surgery
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