Liberal reforms

HideShow resource information

Outline:

  • Liberal politicians = Lloyd George and Churchill
  • Liberal reforms: 
  • - Education Act 1906 (Provision of meals) 
  • - childrens act 1908 
  • - Old Age Pension Act 1908
  • - Peoples Budget 1909 
  • - national Insurance Act 1911
1 of 16

Outline:

  • Liberal politicians = Lloyd George and Churchill
  • Liberal reforms: 
  • - Education Act 1906 (Provision of meals) 
  • - childrens act 1908 
  • - Old Age Pension Act 1908
  • - Peoples Budget 1909 
  • - national Insurance Act 1911
2 of 16

Context:

  • concern over Birtians position in the world: 
  • - greater competition ---- wage costs ---- industrial strife (trouble) 
  • Rise of the Labour party: 
  • - election of 53 labour MPs = comepeting with Liberal MPs.
  • Grwoing awareness of poverty in UK:
  • Concern with 'national effciency' 
  • Social legislation in Germany under Bismarck
3 of 16

Education (Provision of meals) Act 1906

  • school meals for deprived children
  • influence of the Boer War
  • a small, but significant measure (Fraser 2003) 
  • Plans, subsequently abandoned, to change a penny-half rate. 
  • Shift in the role of the state: 
  • - and a move away from the poor law
  • extended to medical inspection 1907 and made compulsory in 1914. 
4 of 16

Education (Provision of meals) Act 1906

  • school meals for deprived children
  • influence of the Boer War
  • a small, but significant measure (Fraser 2003) 
  • Plans, subsequently abandoned, to change a penny-half rate. 
  • Shift in the role of the state: 
  • - and a move away from the poor law
  • extended to medical inspection 1907 and made compulsory in 1914. 
5 of 16

Children's Act (1908)

  • made parental neglect of a child's health a legal offence. 
  • Partially a consolidation of earliers Acts and measures. 
  • New provisions related to: 
  • - failure to protect children from harm/ hazard of open firesd. 
  • - prohibition of juvenile smoking 
  • - placing of 'wandering children' in industrial schools. 
  • - inspection of homes for destitue children 
  • (Harris 2003) 
  • Increased the gowing state concen for the protection of young infants, aimed to reinforce responsible parenthood (Thane 1996)
6 of 16

Old Age Pension Acts (1908)

  • debates since 1870s 
  • arguemnt over provision: 
  • - Chamberline had suggested contributory scheme
  • - left argued for universal pensions on reaching 65. 
  • Asquith favoured a non-contributory, means tested approach. 
  • - aim to help current poor ---- save the young. 
  • state pension at age 70, paids 5 shillings per week, and subject to a means - and character test. 
  • - until 1919 would include criminals, drunks and malingerers 
  • - disqualified if claimed poor relief (until 1911) 
  • "A pensions for the very poor, the very respectable and the very old" (Thame 1996)
7 of 16

Old Age Pension Acts (1908)

8 of 16

Old Age Pension Acts (1908)

  • More applied for the pension: 
  • - Lloyd George: 'mass o poverty and destitution which is too proud to wear the badge of pauperism' 
  • for the first time, a cash benefit free from deliberately-induced stigma of the poor law (Thane, 1996) 
  • From local authorities and board of guardians to the central state (Harris 2003) 
  • For Lloyd George, 'only an experimental beginning in a new field of state action' (thane 1996) 
9 of 16

Old Age Pension Acts (1908)

  • More applied for the pension: 
  • - Lloyd George: 'mass o poverty and destitution which is too proud to wear the badge of pauperism' 
  • for the first time, a cash benefit free from deliberately-induced stigma of the poor law (Thane, 1996) 
  • From local authorities and board of guardians to the central state (Harris 2003) 
  • For Lloyd George, 'only an experimental beginning in a new field of state action' (thane 1996) 
10 of 16

People's budget (1909-1911)

  • During 19th c, Governments emphasised indirect tax: 
  • - tea, tabacco and beers. 
  • relative low reates of income tax .
  • 1909 Budget: 
  • - increase duty on beer, spirits, tobacco, petrol, cars. 
  • - proposed to alter balance of direct and indirect taxs 
  • - make direct tax more progressive. 
  • Income taxes raised. 
  • New 'supertax' introduce 
  • Death dutuies on estates increased. 
  • First time, tax on sale of land. 
  • Introduced a tax-free allowance.
11 of 16

National Insurance Act 1911:

  • after pensions lloyd George turned attention to National insurance. 
  • 1) health insurance 
  • 2) Unemployment insurance. 
12 of 16

National Insurance Act 1911:

  • after pensions lloyd George turned attention to National insurance. 
  • 1) health insurance 
  • 2) Unemployment insurance. 
13 of 16

(1) health Insurance:

  • 'ill-health threw too many respectable people on to the Poor law and caused the loss of many working days" Thane (1996)
  • national health insurance act - provided the right to full treatment by a doctor who you could select. 
  • - cover was extended only to insure person since it was male workers, and the interruption of earingin, which was primary concer as male were the breadwinners (Thane 1996) 
  • The Act provided sickness benefits of 10 shellings per week, for first 26 weeks of sickness. 
  • Male workers contributed 4d per week, employers 3d and state 2d, comprimising Georges saying "9p for 4p"
  • thane argued, this meant that 'contributors would appear to be saving for their own benefits, while experiencing a form of training in saving" (1996) 
14 of 16

(1) health Insurance:

  • 'ill-health threw too many respectable people on to the Poor law and caused the loss of many working days" Thane (1996)
  • national health insurance act - provided the right to full treatment by a doctor who you could select. 
  • - cover was extended only to insure person since it was male workers, and the interruption of earingin, which was primary concer as male were the breadwinners (Thane 1996) 
  • The Act provided sickness benefits of 10 shellings per week, for first 26 weeks of sickness. 
  • Male workers contributed 4d per week, employers 3d and state 2d, comprimising Georges saying "9p for 4p"
  • thane argued, this meant that 'contributors would appear to be saving for their own benefits, while experiencing a form of training in saving" (1996) 
15 of 16

(2) Unemployment Insurance:

  • Churchills work.
  • employers and employees would pat 2d each in contributions, the state provide the third (Fraser 2003) 
  • benefits were also lower - 5s a week for 15 weeks in any 53 week period (Harris 2004) 
  • "not even to germans were willing to attempt unemployment insurance" (Gilbert 1996) 
  • unemployment element was more limited: 
  • -compulsory only in industires vulnerbale to fluctuation (building, construction, shipbulding, engineers) (Fraser 2003) 
16 of 16

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Accounting resources:

See all Accounting resources »See all sociology resources »