- Proper – Specific Names e.g. Lauren, Paris
- Common – Objects, feelings and ideas – Collective e.g. Crowd, Abstract e.g. belief, Concrete e.g. Table
- Plural – The plural noun usually ends in ‘s’ but is sometimes irregular e.g. Mice, Sheep, Children
- Collective – A group of things (animals, people, objects) e.g. Crowd, group, flock
- Noun Phrases – The noun or pronoun is the headword. One or more nouns function as a unit in the sentence. E.g. The Boy, The Tall boy, The tall, ugly boy
(determiner) (Headword) (pre modifies) (pre modifies)
- Personal – replaces the subject or object e.g. I gave her a hug > She hugged me back. (I, he, she, they, us, me, her, him, we, you, it, them.)
- Possessive – Shows possession e.g. This is Jane’s > This is hers. (Mine, ours, his, hers, yours, its)
- Reflexive – The subject of the verb is the same as the object e.g. We forgot ourselves (myself, yourself, ourselves, himself, herself, themselves)
- Stative – Express state of being or processes where there is no obvious action. E.g. To know, To Believe.
- Dynamic – Express a wide range of action which maybe physical e.g. Jump, mental e.g. Think or perceptual e.g. See. They can be used as commands and occur after the verb “To Be” with an “ing” ending.
- Modal – The modal verbs: can and could, may and might, must, shall and should and will and would convey a range of attitudes and moods about the likelihood of an event taking place.
- Primary – The primary verbs “To Be”, “To Have” and “To Do” can act as auxiliaries.
- Transitive – Have to be followed by an object (the person or thing to which the action of the verb is being done)
- Intransitive – Do not need to be followed by an object, to make sense many verbs describing position, like to ‘sit’ and to ‘lie’ and motion, like to run and to go e.g. It happened, the children laughed.
- Verb Phrases – Main verb or main verb and auxiliary verbs. E.g. He must have been drinking. (‘He’ = subject, personal pronoun and noun phrase. Must = Modal verb. ‘Have been’ = primary verbs. ‘drinking’ = main verb)
- Tenses – past and present.
- A word that modifies. E.g. easily, very
An adverb is a part of speech. It is any word that modifies any part of language other than a noun (modifiers of nouns are primarily adjectives and determiners). Adverbs can modify verbs, adjectives (including numbers), clauses, sentences and other adverbs.
Adverbs typically answer questions such as how?, in what way?, when?, where?, and to what extent?. This function is called the adverbial function. e.g.
- The waves came in quickly over the rocks.
- I found the film incredibly dull
- Attributive adjectives come before the noun e.g. A boring film
- Predictive adjectives come after the noun and usually involve a verb. E.g. The film is boring.
- A preposition Is a word used before a noun or pronoun to relate it to the other words. For example ‘in’ in ‘he is in the car’
elision and contraction
- Elision is the omission of a syllable or vowel from a spoken word. E.g. “he’s goin”
- A shortening of a word or group of words often marked by an apostrophe. E.g. I’ve come > I have come.
- A word, especially an adjective or adverb that intensifies the meaning of the word or phrase that it modifies. E.g. very or extremely
Relates to the Field in register and refers to the subject or topic of the text. E.g. Medical
A word that means the opposite of another.
A word that means the same as another word. E.g. Bucket and pail.