Lexis and Semantics

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The Main Word Classes

Understand and Identify the main word classes

Noun (naming word), Verb (doing word), Adjective (describes a noun), Adverb (describes a verb), Preposition (indicate how one thing is connected with another), Conjunction (joins two parts of a sentence together), Pronoun (replaces a noun), Determiner (placed in front of a noun to identify it in some way)

Recognise the different types of nouns/verbs/adjectives/pronouns/conjunctions

Noun - Proper (person, place) Common (just normal) Concrete (can touch it) Abstract (can't touch it) Collective (a word for a group of them e.g. herd)

Verb - Dynamic (actively done) Stative (process) Active (emphasis on who is doing it) Passive (emphasis on the who/what has it done to them)

Adjectives - Pre/post modifying          Conjunctions - Co-ordinaing (two ordinary clauses)                                                                                        and sub-ordinating (+subordinate)

Pronouns - Personal (I, me, you), Reflexive (myself, herself, themselves), Relative (who)

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Denotations and Connotations

Explain the Difference between Denotations and Connotations

Denotation - The literal meaning of a word/phrase

Connotation - What we take a word or phrase to mean (e.g. kick the bucket = die)

Explain the Difference Between Literal and Figurative Language

Literal - The direct meaning of a phrase

Figurative - For example a metaphor or simile

Distinguish between different levels of formality in a text

Some words are definitely formal, and some informal, but most vary e.g. car is formal in comparison to old banger, but informal in comparison to automobile

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Ambiguity and Irony

Understand What is Meant by Ambiguity and Irony

Ambiguity - When the meaning is unclear

Irony - Literally saying one thing and meaning the opposite or an action having the opposite of the desired effect

Explain the Difference Between a Phrase and a Clause

Phrase - A few words which describe something together. The head word dictates what kind of phrase it is

Clause - The parts of a sentence. Ordinary can make sense on their own, but subordinate do not.

Identify the Four Sentence Moods

Declarative (informs), Interrogative (asks), Imperitive (orders), Exclamatory (exclaims)

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Recognise the Main Techniques Used to Achieve Cohesion in a Text

Cataphoric Reference - A reference forward to something else in the text

Anaphoric Reference - A reference back to something in the text

Repetition    Conjunctions

Understand What is Meant by Phonology and Graphology

Phonology - How a text sounds

Graphology - How a text looks

Explain the Difference between Dialect and Accent

Dialect - A form of language with specific features e.g. idiolect/sociolect

Accent - Refers only to the pronunciation of language associated with a region

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Explain the Main Influences on Register

A register is a form of language appropriate to a situation or context. It involves levels of formality and type/complexity of language.

The Main Influences on register are: Audience and Genre

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