Historical Demarcation of work and leisure:
- link between leisure - in the west and history of industrialisation:
- theories of industiralisation:
- Marx: Capitalist producation and commodity exchange
- Weber: Rationalisation and control.
- the factory system demanded that workers worked as many hours as they could be persuaded to do, for the least money that could be managed without the threat of civil disorder. Hence, work and leisure became compartmentalised in people’s everyday lives, and the balance between leisure time and work time became a struggle between recalcitrant masses and burgeoning capital in the pursuit of profit.
- capitalism requires the individual to be self-disciplined and to submit to managerial control by others, timetables, repetitive machines, institutional regimes, and so forth. It forces people to continue working until they are permitted to stop, rather than leaving them to down tools as soon as they have earned the basic means of subsistence (as in feudal systems).
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Moral attitudes towards leisure and class in late
- Sundat bathing and worship
- health and religious discipline
- new mass transport caters for the family: not just men
- ideals of cultural 'improvement'
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Approaches to Leisure:
- ROJEK argues that there are 2 dominant ways of thinking about leaisure in modern capitalist socieites.
- Modernity 1 = Leisure as morally inferior to work, in work people truly finding themselves and are at thier creative; protestant work ethic.
- Modernity 2 = creativity associated with the imagination, with spirituality, with emotions, lesiure becomes a basic human need ofr self expression and personal development/
- ROJEK wants to 'decentre' leisure: by which he means divest it of connotations of freedom, choice, fantasy, escape. lesiure is a vital area of study in society.
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Leisure practices as 'Symbolic Work'
- Consumer creativity and agency:
- consumers can form sub-culture critical of mainsteam - punk, hippies goths etc.
- consumer of film and broadcast media products similarly excersise agency in interpreting what is viewed.
- Leisure time choice of what and when to consume increases the degree of autonomy.
- WILLIS disagrees with clarke and Critchers analysis: lesirue is not where people merely mirror pssively the marketised relation of commerical lesirue production
- instead i s about 'symbolic creativity' - identity making
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Early forms of Tourism:
- medieval Europe: by 13th/14th centuries the pilgrimage was serviced by a network of inns and charitable hospices.
- End of 17th Century: First recorded use of ''grand tour': 1670. classical grand tour already well-established for sons of aristoracy: based on high culture, visitng galleries and art collections.
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1840s: Development of UK tourism industry:
- Advent of the steam railway in mid 19th C was a key development for the expansion of a bigger, more mass market for tourism in the UK.
- Thomas Cook pioneered modern mass tourism when, on 5th july 1841, he recognised the first package tour in history.
- He teamed up with a railway compants to charge one shiling per person for a group of 570.
- Cook recognised the economic potential of selling a convenient packaged holiday experience in which everything was included in one ticket.
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1870s: Growth of Working-class holiday market:
- Bank holidays Act 1971
- growth of seaside holiday resorts and holiday camps
- 1950's - development of passenger airlines led to affordable overseas pachage tours - UK holiday camps and seaside resorts begane to wane.
- up until the 19th C only the wealthy went on holiday - the rise of this tourism allowed the working people too also.
- Tourism now a vast global industry: annual international arrivals increased from 25million in 1950 to 806 million in 2005 (rate of 6.5%)
- tourism market highly concentrated in wealthy nations: Europe and Americans dominate market share of tourist-receiving region - but emergin destinations such as Asia and middle east.
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Todays Tourism Market:
- in 2011 international tourist arrivals totalled at 980million worlwide up from 553 million in same period in 2005.
- the growth is still expecting to increase in up and coming years
- growth of transport networks and hence foreign travels: every country has a significant influx of visitor, but there is significant uneven development and change:
- international tourism arrivals inro Asia grew 13% in 2010, the biggest driver of growth
- Americans recorded rise of +8%, europe +3%
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An Unequal global Tourism market:
- Arrivals to Europe reached 503million in 2011
- Asia and Pasific was up to 11 million arrivals in 2011 = 216million international tourists
- American saw an increase of 6million arrials reaching 156million in toatak.
- south america up by 10% for the second consecutive year.
- North America hit the 100million tourists mark in 2011.
- Africa maintain at 50million arriaval.
- middle east lost an estimated 5million international tourist arrivals, totalling 55million.
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Theoretical Issues: Tourism and Authenticity
- BOORSTIN = contends that americans can no longer exp. reality; instead they have reality packaged for them, avoiding reality as far as possible.
- the tour operator steps into mediate between the tourist and the inhavitant of the destination.
- hence tourism is a 'Pseudo-event'
- he distinguishes between tourists and 'ture' travellers.
- TURNER & ASH: THE GOLDEN HORDES (1975)
- Aruge that tourists are passive and need surrogate parents (travel agents, tour guides etc) and move in a highly circumscribed and controlled world, where cultural elements have to be simplified.
- Western tourists represent 'a form of cultural imperialism, an unending pursuit of fun, sun and sex by the golden hordes of pleasure seekers who are damaging loca lcultures and polluting the world in thier quest' (Turner and Ash: 1975)
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Tourism as search for authenticity:
- Tourist as a product of Modernity:
- MACCANNELL: tourism is a search for authenticity, in a world in which quthenticity is lacking - the popularity of tourism can be explained by modernisation and increasin detachment from traditional values of work, fam, home in western societies.
- Hence tourists - who come in the main from highly-industrialised and technologised countries - are seeking the authenticity that is lacking at home.
- We dont however actually find real authenticity but only 'stages authenticity' - an idea that Maccannell developes buildinging on Goffmans 'impression management'
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The Tourist Gaze:
- Tourism as 'liminal' experience - time out from the everyday life.
- URRYSV= work in 1990s has been influential in challenging the thesis of authenticity.
- Tourism offers a place of separation from the nomal place and routines of life and conventional social ties; provides an 'anti structure'
- one can induldge in playfull, lucid behaviours.
- post tourists see going away as a break from authenticity/
- Hence anything can be classed as tourist as long as its different from everyday life.
- argues differnt tourists sites invite differnt types of tourist gazze. ranging from the romantic and the anthropological to the colective etc.
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Conceptual issues: Tourism as a highly differentia
- CLASS = different groups identify with particular 'tastes cultures' that lead to different kind of preferenced holidays.
- GENDER = gendered forms of labour - e.g women remaining responsible for domestic probisioning on holiday and also... gender toursit gaze - e.g women travellers fining themselves the object of male sexual advantages.
- ETHNICITY =
- ORIENTATION = tourists set off with a stereotype expectations about the scenert, kinds of cultures, people, behaviours, foods, tastes values etc, in return yourists providers often set out to meet these pre-constructed expectations, hence travel does not necessarily broaden the mind.
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Host and Guest: Tourism Inequalities:
- Economic Dependancy: = tourist industries often provide only seasonal, low-wages jobs and may encourage various forms of exploitation, such as prositituion, environmental pollution, cultrual commodification or the siphoning off of much needed public service funds.
- Acculturation: = Is the borrowing of one or some element of culture takes place as a result of a contact of any duration between two different societies.
- this borrowing is usally seen as asymmetrical, with the culture of the more developed and conomically powerful society dominating that of the less developed.
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Crititque of host and guest tourism:
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