lectures 13-14

ES 1 LECTURE SET MISSING COPY FROM WORD DOC

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  • Created on: 10-05-09 17:00

COMPARISON TO NS

NS: NT RELEASED LOCALLY RESPONSE IMPULSES, CLOSE TO SITE OF RELEASE AT SYNAPSE. BINDS POST SM RECEPTORS, MUSCLE CELLS GLANDS, NEURONES. MILLISEC, LASTS MILISEC

ES: HORMONES DELIVERED > TISSUES IN BLOOD. FAR SITE RELEASE, BINDS RECEPTORS ON TARGET CELLS. ALL CELLS. SEC/HR/DAYS. SEC/DAYS

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CLASSES OF HORMONES

LIPID SOL - STEROIDS, THYROID HORMONES, NO, TRANSPORTED BY PROTEINS, READY RESERVE IN BS

STEROID HORMONES - ALDOSTERONE, CORTISOL, ANDROGEN, CALCITRIOL, TESTOSTERONE, PROG/ESTROGEN

SITE - ADRENAL CORTEX, KIDNEYS, TESTES, OVARIES

THYROID HORMONES - T3-4 THRYROID GLAND

GAS - NO SITE, ENDOTHELIAL CELLS

WATER SOL - AA -AMINES - NOR/ADR: ADRENAL MEDULLA, HISTAMINE: MAST CELLS IN CT, MELATONIN: PINEAL GLAND, SEROTONIN: PLATELETS

PEPTIDES & PROTEINS: OT/ADH: POST PIT, HGH, SGH, TSH, FSH, LH, PRL, ACTH, MSH: ANT PIT, INSULIN, GLUCAGON, SOMATOSTATIN, PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE: PANC, PTH: PT GLAND, CALCITONIN: THYROID GLAND, GASTRIN, SECRETIN, CHLOECYSTOKININ, GIP: STOMACH/SI. ERYTHROPOITEN:KIDNEYS, LEPTIN: ADIPOSE TISSUE, PROSTAGANDINS,

EIKOSANOIDS - LEUKOTRIENES:ALL CELLS EXCEPT RBC

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RECEPTORS

HORMONES AFFECT TARGET CELLS

H20 SOL ATTACH OUTSIDE

LIPID ATTACH INSIDE

RESPONSES OCCUR INSIDE

2000-100 000 RECEPTORS

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WATER SOL MECH

1. HORMONE 1ST MESSENGER BINDS> RECEPTOR > ACTIVATES G PROTEIN > ACTIVATES ADENYLATE CYCLASE > 2. CONVERTS ATP > cAMP > 3. 2ND MESSENGER SYSTEM ACTIVATES PROTEIN KINASES > 4. PHOSPHATE CELLULAR PROTEINS > 5. REACTION = PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE

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LIPID SOL MECH

1. HORMONE DIFFUSES INTO CELL> 2. RECEPTOR HORMONE COMPLEX ALTERS GENE EXP > 3. mRNA DIRECTS SYSNTH SPECIFIC PROTEIN ON RIBOSOMES

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HORMONE INTERACTIONS

PERMISSIVE - HORMONE ALLOWS OTHER TO FUNCTION

SYNERGISTIC

ANTAGONISTIC

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CONTROL HORMONE SECRETION

HORMONES SECRETED IN BURSTS

INC WITH STIMULATION

REGULATED BY: NEURAL SIGNALS, CHEMICAL CHANGES IN BLOOD & OTHER HORMONES

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HORMONE DEGREDATION

PEPTIDES BY PLASMA ENZYMES - SHORT 1/2 LIFE

LIPIDS BOUND TO GLOBULIN CARRIERS - DEACTIVATED BY PASSING THROUGH THE LIVER

EXCRETED BY URINE

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PITUTITORY GLAND HORMONES

ANT LOBE: STIM BY TROPHIC HORMONES, HYPOPHYSEAL PORTAL SYSTEM

HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE hGH, THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE TSH, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE FSH, LUTEINIZING HORMONE LH, PROLACTIN PRL, ADRENOCORTIOTROPHIC HORMONE ACTH, MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONE MSH

POST LOBE: NEURAL TISSUE RELEASES HORMONES PROD BY HYPO, NEUROSECRETORY CELLS

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FEEDBACK & REGULATION GHRH & GHIH

HYPOGLYCEMIC > GHRH STIMULATED RELEASE hGH > hGH & IGF INC SPEED OF GLUCOSE RELEASE IN LIVER> BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL BECOMES NORMAL > HYPERGLYCEMIA INHIBITS hGH RELEASE

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T3 & T4

LOW LEVEL T3-4/ METABOLIC RATE > TRH > HYPOPHYSEAL PORTAL VEINS > ANT PITUITARY > RELEASE TSH > STIMULATED THYROID FOLLICULAR GLANDS > T3 & 4 RELEASED

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FSH & LH

ANT PIT

TRIGGERED BY GnRH

TARGET GONADS

FSH - DEVELOP OVARIAN FOLLICLES & STIM SPERM PRODUCTION

LH - TRIGG OVULATION & TESTOSTERONE SECRETION

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PRL

ANT PIT

TRIGGER PRH & PIH FROM HYPO

MILK SECRETION

ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION

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ACTH

ANT PIT

TRIGGERED BY CRH/STRESS

PROD/SEC BY GLUCOCORTICOIDS

CORTISOL - ADRENAL CORTEX = -VE FBK REGULATION CRH & ACTH RELEASE

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MSH

ANT PIT

FUNCT & MECH UNKNOWN

PRESENCE IN BRAIN INFLUENCE ACTIVITY?

STIM BY CRH

INHIBITED PIH

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POST PIT

NEUROHYPOPYSIS

OT - UTERUS/MAMMARY GLANDS,

FUNCTN- NON REPROD WOMEN/MEN UNKNOWN

INDICATES PARENTAL BEHAVE

ADH - URINE PROD & VASOPRESSIN + BP

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ADH MECHANISM

OSMOTIC PRESS > HYPOTHALAMIC OSMORECEPTORS > ACT NEUROSEC CELLS > RELEASES ADH > KIDNEYS RETAIN H20 > SUDORIFEROUS GLANDS DEC SWEAT > ARTERY CONSTRICTION

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THYROID GLANDS

PARA/FOLLICULAR CELLS

TSH > FOLLICULAR CELLS > T3/4

PARA > CALCITONIN > Ca HOMEOSTASIS

IODIDE TRAPPING > TGB SYNT > IODIDE OXIDATION > TYROSINE IODINATION > T1 & 2 COUPLING > PINOCYTOSIS & DIGESTION COLLOID > THYROID SECRETION

T3 & 4 REGULATE 02 USE & BMR

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PARATHYROID GLAND

4 MASSES TISSUE ON POST SURFACE LATERAL LOBE THYROID GLAND

CHEIF CELLS = PARAT HORMONE

OXYPHILLIC CELLS - FUNC UNKNOWN

PTH HORMONE REGULATES Ca/Mg/PHOSPHATE IONS

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REGULATION Ca

+CA > THYROID GLAND & PARAFOLL CELLS > CALCITONIN > INHIB OCLASTS DEC Ca LEVEL > -Ca BLOOD > PTH CHIEF CELLS > PTH > STIM CLASTS PREV Ca LOSS URINE > KIDNEYS RELEASE CALCITRIOL > + ABS CA IN FOOD

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ADRENAL GLANDS

OUTER CORTEX - ZONA GLOMERULOSA/FASCICULATA/RETICULARIS

INNER ADRENAL MEDULLA

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ZONA GLOMERULOSA

SEC MINERALS - CORTICOIDS (ALDOSTERONE), MINERAL HOMEO

FUNCT: REGULATE Na REAB, EXCRETION K+, H+, REG BP & VOL

Na REABSORPTION

DEHYDRATION/ Na DEFICIENCY/HEMORRHAGE > -B VOL/PRESSURE > KIDNEY > RENIN > ANGIOTENSINOGEN > ANGIOTENSIN1 > LUNGS (ANGIOTENSIN CONV ENZ) > ANGIOTENSIN 2 > ARTERIOLE VASOCONSTRICTION/ALDOSTERONE FROM ADRENAL CORTEX > MORE Na RETURNS TO BLOOD > KIDNEYS > +K EXCRETED > +BP & BV

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ZONA FASCICULATA

SEC GLUCOCORTICOIDS

GLUCOSE HOMEO

CORTISOL/CORTICOSTERONE/CORTISONE

EFFECT: PROTEIN BREAK, FORMS GLUCOSE, LIPOLYSIS, RESISTANCE ANTI-INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE, DEPRESSION IMMUNE RESPONSE

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ZONA RETICULARIS

WEAK ANDROGEN -DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE DEPA

EFFECTS WOMEN - PROMOTES LIBIDO & CONV TO OESTROGEN

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ADRENAL MEDULLA

CHROMAFFIN CELLS

LACK AXONS

CLUSTER LARGE BV

SEC NOR/ADRENALINE

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PANCREAS

ENDO/EXO GLANDS ENDO ISLETS LANGERHANS AMONG EXOCRINE ACINI

APLHA - GLUCAGON - RASIE BLOOD GLUCOSE, INHBITED BY SOMATOSTATIN/INSULIN

BETA - INSULIN- INHIBITED BY SOMATOSTATIN, ACCELERATES TRASPORT TO CELLS, GLYCOGENESIS, DEC GLYCOGENOLYSIS & GLUCONEOGENESIS, + LIPOGENESIS & PROTEIN SYNTHESIS - STIMULATED BY: + GLUCOSE, ACh, ARGENINE & LEUCINE, GLUCAGON, GIP, hGH & ACTH

DELTA - SOMATOSTATIN INHIBITS INSULIN/GLUCAGON, SLOWS NUTRIENT ABSORPTION FROM GI TRACT. INHIBITED PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE

F/PP - SECRETE PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE

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GONADS

PRODUCE GAMETES

MALE - TESTES REGULATES SPERM PRODUCTION & MALE SEX CH

INHIBIN - INHIBITS FSH

FEMALE - PROG/OESTROGEN WORKS FSH/LH REGULATE PERIODS, PREGNANCY & LACTATION,

INHIBIN

RELAXIN - SECRETED BY OVARIES/PLACENTA

INC FLEXIBILITY PUBIC SYMPHYSIS DILATES CERVIX

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PINEAL GLAND

MELOTONIN

PROMOTES SLEEP

INH REPROD FUNCTION

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THYMUS

SEC THYMOSIN, THYMIC HUMORAL FUNCTION, THYMOPOITIN

PROMOTES T CELL MATURATION

RETARDATION OF AGING

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ENDOCRINE DISORDERS

*HGH* HYPOSEC CHILD - DWARF, HYPER CHILD - GIANT, HYPER - ADULT = ACROMEGALY

*ADH* HYPO - NEUROGENIC DIABETES INSIPIDUS

HYPER - NEPHROGENIC DIABETES INSIPIDUS

*THYROID HORMONES* HYPO - BIRTH = CONGENITAL HYPOTHYROIDISM. HYPO-ADULT = MYXEDEMA. HYPER-GRAVES DISEASE.

*ADRENAL HORMONES* HYPER CORTISOL - CUSHINGS SYNDROME. HYPO GLUCOCORTICOIDS/ALDOSTERONE - ADDISONS DISEASE

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PANCREATIC ISLET DISORDERS

HYPO INSULIN = DIABETES MELLITUS

TYPE 1 = DESTRUCTION BETA CELLS IMMUNE SYSTEM

TYPE 2 - LACK SENSITIVITY, DOWN REGULATION INSULIN RECEPTORS

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