- Food creates a sense of pleasure, the person providing the food (usually mother) is associated to the food and therefore becomes the source of pleasure.
- The association between an indivicual and a sense of pleasure of the attachment bond.
- UCR: unconditioned stimulus = food.
- UCR: unconditioned respones = pleasure.
- CS: conditioned stimulus = mum.
- CR: conditioned response = pleasure.
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- Learning occurs when we are rewarded for doing somethiing. We continue to do things that are reinforced.
- Behaviours which produce a feeling of pleasure are 'stamped in' and therefore repeated.
- Those which produce unpleasant consequences are generally not continued.
Dollard & Miller.
- We have a primary drive, a motivational state arising from basic psychological needs eg. hunger.
- They suggest a hungry infant feels uncomfortable and this creates a drive to this discomfort.
- When the infant is fed, the drive is reduced and this creates a feeling of pleasure. Food becomes a primary reinforcer.
- The person who feeds the infant then becomes linked to the satisfaction of food and therefore becomes the secondary reinforcer.
- The infant is therefore motivated to seek the mother's presence to recieve this reward or feeling of pleasure.
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- -ve: Shaffer and Emerson found that the first attachment formed by 39% of babies was not to the person who fed them but with the person who was most sensitive and rewarding to them eg. played with them.
- +ve & -ve: This explanation is at least partially correct; we do form attachments through conditioning. However, food may not be the main factor. It may be that responsiveness from a caregiver is an important reward that creates the bond.
- -ve: This explanation ignores the considerable evidence pointing towards the importance of evolutionary aspects of attachment. (i.e. we attach for survival)
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