Learning and Development

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  • Created by: A92
  • Created on: 17-04-13 20:01


'Learning' was 'training':

Why train employees? -

  • Employees will be able to acquire new competencies and capabilities
  • It will add to the value of their human capital
  • Increases employee's employability skills, which in turn could lead to more rewarding jobs elsewhere or pay increases etc
  • However, training can be expensive and the resources needed to equip a specialised function does not come cheaply

Below illustrates the six 'Es' of training, and why organisations train employees...

  • Engage - (understanding policies and method of working)
  • Educate - (increase knowledge and awareness)
  • Enhance - (improve skills and competence)
  • Empower - (faster, better quality decisions can be made)
  • Energize - (to motivate and inspire employees)
  • Enlighten - (helps employees see things in a different way)
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Criticisms of training -

While the theoretical case for training is undeniable, the reality is often disappointing.

There are 2 main reasons for this..

  • Training has become routinized
  • Trainers themselves often lack the sufficient understanding of learning theories, and many are not professional trainers

This has lead to many researchers stating that 'learning' may instead be the way forward.

Different perceptions of the value of training:

  • Training as a cost - (training costs are likely to limit its scope and intensity)
  • Training as an investment - (can develop capability to support organisational objectives)
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Types of training:

Training differs widely in terms of its purpose and focus. Some of the most common training categories include..

  • Induction training - (used to facilitate the entry, participation and socialization of new recruits)
  • Job-specific operational procedures - (mixture of on-the-job and classroom based)
  • Technology training - (involves instruction, structured practice and feedback)
  • Mandatory training - (to comply with an organisations own rules and regulations)
  • Improvement training - (developing competencies that additional to core competencies)
  • Attitudinal training - (can be used to influence what employes believe and think, and also how they behave towards others)
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Understanding and managing the learning process:

Learning as a process, has some important characteristics..

  • You cannot see it happening - it is essentially a cognitive process
  • You can only see that learning has taken place through changes in the way people think, behave and work
  • 'Real' changes relates to knowledge, skills and attitudes that are embedded within the individual.

The Kolb learning cycle -

Kolb defined how people learn from their experiences by going through 4 steps..

  • Concrete experience - (doing/having an experience)
  • Reflective observation - (reviewing/reflecting on the experience)
  • Abstract conceptualisation - (concluding/learning from the experience)
  • Active experimentation - (planning/trying out what you have learned)
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Moving forward; the power of accelerated learning:

Accelerated learning offers a set of principles, values and practices that represent an alternative to conventional approaches to learning. Supports of accelerated learning reject learning based on the 'one size fits all' approach, and instead emphasises on instruction and passive listening.

In terms of accelerated learning, below is a set of assumptions about what people need in order to optimize their learning...

  • A positive learning environment - (positive social, physical and emotional environment)
  • Total learner involvement - (active involvement and responsibility)
  • Collaboration among learners - (working together with others)
  • Variety that appeals to all learning preferences and styles
  • Contextual learning - (learning out of context is harder to absorb)
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Based on the characteristics and assumptions of accelerated learning, Meier offers a 'universalistic' model of learning. This features 4 phases, all of which must be present in one form or another, or, according to Meier, no learning occurs...

  • Preparation - the arousal of interest
  • Presentation - the initial encounter and involvement with new ateas of knowledge or skill
  • Practice - The integration and embedding of the new knowledge or skill
  • Performance - Applying the knowledge or skill to the job
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Learning & Development

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