Learning- A relatively permenant change in behaviour that is due to some experience.
Generalization- This occurs when we produce a conditioned response to a stimulus that is similar but not the same as the conditioned stimulus.
Extinction- When the conditioned stimulus no longer produces the conditioned response.
Sponteneous Recovery- This occurs after extinction, suddenly, in the presence of the conditioned stimulus, the conditioned response reappears.
Discrimination- This occurs when we produce a conditioned response to only one specific stimulus, even if there are similiar ones in the enviourment.
Pavlov already knew that dog's salivate when they smell meat powder. Every time the powder was given to the dog he sounded a bell. He repeated this numerous times. Then, he sounded the bell without the meat powder and noticed that each dog still salivated.
Watson and Rayner
Aim: To see if the emotional response of fear could be conditioned in a human
Method: Albert was 11 months old, he had no fear of white rats, in the conditioning trials the rat was placed infront of Albert and as he reached for it, a loud noise would be hit. scaring Albert.
Results: After seven times Albert was terrified of the rat for fear that the scary noise would return.
Conclusion: Classical conditioning can result in fear being learnt by humans.
Placed a hungry cat in a box with the food outside. The box was set up so that if the cat pulled on a piece of string the door would open and he would be released with food waiting for him. The first time the cat accidently hit the string but each time it took him a quicker time to get the food and open the box.
Created the 'Skinner's Box', He would place a hungry rat in a box. The rat would produce a variety of actions and then by accident he would stumble apon the switch and the food would drop into his bowl. It also took it a quicker time to get a treat each time.