- Created by: Emmatjies
- Created on: 11-05-20 12:27
Leading causes of morbidity and mortality in UK
Influenza and pneumonia
Principal causes and risk factors that contribute
Importance of primary, secondary and tertiary prev
Education and immunisation
Early detection (screening)
Slow and prevent spread.
Outline the processes of immunity, antibodies and
T- helper cell clones into B cells (humoral immunity) or more T cells (cell-mediated immunity) in response to and antigen.
- Plasma cells grow and they release specific antibodies into the blood stream to target antigen.
Cell mediated immunity:
- T cells produce helper cells that produce more B cells and help to promote growth of plasma cells and the release of antibodies into the blood stream.
- Supressor cells kill of antibodies after a period of time (when not used the get bashed against vessels and become mishapen and will provide immunity against something not necessary.)
- Produce Killer T cells that kill antigen directly.
- Produce memory cells for subsequent infections that produce T cells.
Outline the processes of allergy.
IgE synthesis (Bcell)
Attaches to Mast cell or Basophils
Cross-linking by allergen
Calcium influx into the cell
Releases histamine and serotonin
Increase vascular permeability
Differentiate between chronic and acute inflammati
- Vasodilation and increased vascular permeability
- Neutrophils and monocytes
- Resolution within days (fluid drained by lymph channels)
- Persistant inflammatory stimulus
- Recurrent bouts of inflammation
- Macrophages, Lymphocytes and plasma cells ( no neutrophils)
- Tissue destruction, fibroblasts and collagen.
Impact of oedema in bone, cranium and soft tissues
- Increased pressure created by excess fluid
- Restricts blood flow
- Avascular necrosis
Increased pressure on brain -Loss of differentiation and loss of gyri and sulci.
Water flows to higher concentrations of solute
Pulmonary oedema when fluid is in the alveoli. - Reduced by diuretics
Define between, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy,
Atrophy- Reduced size and number of cells
Hypertrophy- Increase in size
Hyperplasia- Increase in number
Metaplasia- The cells change thir function
Dysplasia- Deranged cell growth cells, various cell size, shape, and function (pre cursor)
Neoplasia- Complete loss of control, Abnormal replication
Loss of apoptosis. (Cell death)
Explain the impact of multi-system diseases - Lupu
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-
- Oral ulcers
- skin rash
- Cerebral lupus
- Lupus nephritis
Explain the impact of multi-system diseases- Scler
Vascular renal damage
Sclerosis of subcutis
Acrosclersosis Calcinosis cutis
Explain the impact of multi-system diseases- Sarco
Sarcoidosis- Disease involving abnormal collections of inflamatory cells that form lumps known as granulomas.
- Lacrimal and salivary infiltration
- Lung infiltration
- Iritisi and uveitis
- Lupus pernio
- Mild splenomegaly
- Erthema nodosum
- Dry eyes
- Pulmonary fibrosis
- Rheumatoid nodules
- Drug related renal damage
- Drug related ulcers of the stomach
- Skin rash
Explain the impact of multi-system diseases- diabe
- Diabetic retinopathy
- Ischarmic heart disease
- Diabetic nephropathy
- Severe athersclerosis
- Peripheral neuropathy/ w/ trophic ulcerations
- Skin infections
- Necrobiosis lipoidica
- Ischaemia of lower limbs (gangrene)
Impact of ageing for each body system- CVS
Affect of aging on cardiovascular system:
- Decreased cardiac output
- Blood vessels become less elastic - Increased systolic BP
- Venous blood returned slower- thrombus formation
- Fascia supporting veins are weakened - variose veins
- Cardiac muscles weaken
- Valvular thickening -disrupt blood flow
- Loss of responsiveness of nerve cells - Arrythmias
- Systolic hypertension- due to rigid aorta
- Orthostatic hypotension- due to lack of autonomic Nervous System control
Impact of ageing for each body system- RS
Affects on respiratory system:
- Weakening of respiratory muscles
- Increased workload- less desire to breathe deeply
- Decreased tidal volume
- Increased residual volume
- Decreased vital capacity
- Reduced perfusionat alveolus
- Increased risk of infections:
- Calcification off tissues in the cartilage wall
Impact of ageing for each body system- NS
Affects on Nervous system:
- Loss of- Cortical thickness, Neurotransmitter, synapses, cerebral blood flow, Metabolic rate.
- Increase in neurofribillary tangels and neuritis plaques of amyloid deposits.
- Acute brain failure
- Chronic brain failure
- Motor neuron disease
- Herpes zoster
- Malignant disease
- Peripheral polyneuropathy
Impact of ageing for each body system- GIT
Affect of ageing on Gastrointestinal tract
Inadequate relaxation of cardiac sphincter.
Impact of ageing for each body system- US
Affects of ageing on the urinary system:
Reduced number of functional glomeruli
Reduced renal blood flow- Sclerosis of renal arteries, Loss of homeostatic control
Easier predisposition to dehydration
Weakened and stiffened walls, less elastic
Males enlarged prostate
Sign- Objective evidence of a disease, Can be observed or measured. i.e skin rash or lump.
Symptom- Subjective to the patient.
Health- A state of physical mental and social well-being. Not merely the abscence of disease. Capacity of the body to perform "normal" functions efficiently.
Disease- Failure to adapt; A dysfunction- failure of homestasis mechanism.
Autoimmune diseases often originate from a perversion of a survival mechanism; failures in adaptation tend to be self-reinforcing and proressive.
- There needs to be a recognised need for it.
- Objectives must be definied
- There must be a target population
- Scientific evidence must support effectiveness of screening programme
- Benefits of screening must outweigh the risk.
Lymphocytes produce antibodies, regulation of inflammatory responses.
Endothelium- Produce prostoglandin.
Prostoglandin causes pain- Aspirin surpresses prostoglandin
Histamine and serotonin are secreted by mast cells and basophils. They increase vasodilation and vascular permeabiity allowing fluid to leave more freely from the vessels causing oedema.
Oedema Increase the hydrostatic pressure reducing blood supply to areas of the body.
Symptoms of infection
Redness- Dilation of blood vessels- increased blood flow
Heat- Increased blood flow
Swelling- Accumulation of fluid leaving the vessel
Pain- Increased pressure on endothelium and cellular reactions
Loss of function due to pain and swelling.
IgD- Lymphocyte membrane protein
IgE- Activated basophils and mast cells in allergic reactions
IgG- Major whole body reactions
IgM- Largest First to appear after infection.