Learning Model - Gambling

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  • Created by: natcur
  • Created on: 29-03-16 16:00

A01: Gambling (Learning Model)

Initiation: SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY:

Suggests that addictive behaviour in this case gambling is started by an idividual observing a behaviour, finding this behaviour appealing and then reinforcing the behaviour themselves. Then, the individual pays attention to a role model such as family members or peers and people they identify with with the same characteristics ect. The info is then retained inorder to reproduce it. The motivation to do so comes from direct reinforcement such as a win or congrats from friends. 

GUPTA ET AL: suggested unlike any other problem adolescent behaviours, gambling was often overtly approved by parents by EG: BUYIN CHILDREN LOTTERY TICKETS.

Vicarious reinforcement: Can also motivate the addictive behaviour. EG// seeing others rewarded for the gambling behaviour.

Maintenence: OPERANT CONDITIONING:

Operant conditioning can explain the maintenence of gambling via reinforcement. 

POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT: REWARDS FOR BEHAVIOUR = CONTINUES BEHAVIOUR.

NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT: PERFORMING BHAVIOUR CAN HELP TO RELIEVE BORDOME AND STRESS.

SKINNER: Suggested that VARIABLE RATIO REINFORCEMENT schedule was most likely to make the behviour continue.This is where the gambler does not recieve rewards every time for the behaviour, due to being rewarded at random intervals unpredictably and irregularly wanting to win the game makes the compulsion to gamble stronger. NOT WINNING ONCE WILL NOT DISTINGUISH BEHAVIOUR, ONLY FUEL IT TO BECOME MORE COMPULSIVE. An individual may have learnt that eg// the fruit machine doesnt always pay out but sometimes it does so they wait for that time.

Relapse: CUE REACTIVITY THEORY: Classical Conditioning:

Association of stimuli with their gambling behaviour eg// pub with fruit machine. Which have incidentally become conditioned stimulus. After being abstenant for a while, these cues give the addictor more chance to relapse.

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A01: Gambling (Learning Model) continued

POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT: REWARDS FOR BEHAVIOUR = CONTINUES BEHAVIOUR.

NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT: PERFORMING BHAVIOUR CAN HELP TO RELIEVE BORDOME AND STRESS.

SKINNER: Suggested that VARIABLE RATIO REINFORCEMENT schedule was most likely to make the behviour continue.This is where the gambler does not recieve rewards every time for the behaviour, due to being rewarded at random intervals unpredictably and irregularly wanting to win the game makes the compulsion to gamble stronger. NOT WINNING ONCE WILL NOT DISTINGUISH BEHAVIOUR, ONLY FUEL IT TO BECOME MORE COMPULSIVE. An individual may have learnt that eg// the fruit machine doesnt always pay out but sometimes it does so they wait for that time.

Relapse: CUE REACTIVITY THEORY: Classical Conditioning:

Association of stimuli with their gambling behaviour eg// pub with fruit machine. Which have incidentally become conditioned stimulus. After being abstenant for a while, these cues give the addictor more chance to relapse.

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A02: Gambling (Learning Model) EVALUATION:

Supporting evidence for SLT in INITIATION and MAINTENENCE:

BROWNE AND BROWNE: FOUND THAT STUDENTS' LOTTERY GAMBLING WAS POSITIVELY CORRELATED TO HAVING PARENTS AND FRIENDS WHO GAMBLE.                                                                                                                                  

Additionally, felsher et al: found parental participation had an effect on those who gambled. Also did a study of 1070 canadian 10-18 year olds, 77% of participants reporten being bought scratch cards and 50% being bought lottery tickets by their parents which shows overt approval of gambling behaviour.

This demonstrates the power of rolemodels in the initiation and maintenence of lottery gambling.

Supporting evidence for VARIABLE RATIO REINFORCEMENT in the MAINTENENCE:

Intermittent Reinforcement leads to a more rapid longerlasting behaviour that is more difficult to extinguish. SKINNER: animals work harder for the reward if its unpredictable when they will recieve it.  PARKE ET AL: found gamblers dont have to win every time.

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