- Created by: lyds28
- Created on: 07-03-19 09:40
- All behaviours are learnt from our environment - we are born as blank slates.
- Focus on observable behaviour.
- Animals and humans learn in the same ways so bahaviourists carry out experiments on animals and extrapolate the results to humans.
- Psychology should be scientific and objective therefore behaviourists use mainly lab studies to achieve this.
- Mind is irrelevant - cant observe and measure people's thinking.
1 of 4
classical conditioning: learning by association
- learning through association.
- first shown by Ivan Pavlov -Pavlov's dogs:
- dogs presented with food and salivated.
- food - unconditioned stimulus. Salivation - unconditioned response.
- Pavlov sounded bell (neutral stimulus) before giving food. After a few pairings dogs salivated when they heard bell and no food.
- bell - conditioned stimulus. Salivation - conditioned response.
- Dogs had learnt to associate the bell with the food and the sound of the bell and salivation was triggered by the sound of the bell.
2 of 4
Operant conditioning: learning by consequences
- Skinner argued that learning is an active process. When humans and animals act on and in their environment consequences follow these behaviors. If the consequences are pleasant they repeat the behavior but if the consequences are unpleasant they do not repeat the behavior.
- Positive reinforcement: is receiving a reward.
- Negative reinforcement: occurs when performing an action stops something unpleasant happening. For example in one of Skinner’s experiment a rat had to press a lever to stop receiving an electric shock.
- Punishment: this is an unpleasant consequence. For example being grounded for not doing your psychology homework.
3 of 4
The Skinner Box (1953)
- hungry rat placed in a cage. Every time he activated the lever - food pellet fell in food dispenser (positive reinforcement) rats quickly leatnt to go straight to lever after few times - suggests positive reinforcement increases likelihood the behavior being repeated.
- Sees all behaviour as determined by past experiences that have been conditioned - ignores free will.
- Scientific - highly controlled.
- Real life applications.
4 of 4
Similar Psychology resources: