Animals can learn from previous experience how to avoid predators and harmful food, and how to find food or a suitable mate.
Pigs removed from mothers at an early stage become aggressive adults.
Birds never learn the bird song for their species if kept in isolation when young.
Babies whose parents argue alot are more likely to suffer from attacks of rage when older.
Repeatedly giving an animal a stimulus that isn't beneficial or harmful to it, so it learns not to respond to it.
For example you can often sleep through familiar, loud noises. but if you have moved to a quiet place are easily awakened.
An animals behaviour to habituation includes;
Crows eventually learning to ignore scarecrows.
By ignoring a neutral stimuli animals can spend their energy more efficiently by concentrating on stimuli that are possibly dangerous.