Why The League Was Created
1918- Countries sick of war- Men were determined never to go to war again-Instead it was hoped they would live together in friendship and settle disagreements by disscussion.
Britain had been considering an organisation which would solve emergencies.
The French wanted a strong organisation with an army.
Woodrow Wilson in his 14 points called for a 'General association of nations' and a worls parliament to get together and solve all matters.
1919- A Peace conference accepted Woodrows idea and called the organisation the 'League of Nations'
It came into exsistance when the peace treaties were signed.
Wilson insisted that 'League covenant' (set of 26 rules by which the League was organised) was included in each treaty.
Aims Of The League
1. To discourage aggression and to keep world peace.
2. To encourage countries to cooperate espicially in business and trade.
3. To encourage nations to disarm.
4. To improve the living and working conditions of people in all parts of the world.
Members of the league agreed to maintain peace through COLLECTIVE SECURITY
Collective security meant that if one country attacked another, the other countries who were members of the league would act together and stop the aggressor.
They would use 3 methods to do so:
1.Moral Condemnation : condeming the one to blame
2.Economic Santions: league members would refuse to trade with the aggressor
3. Military Sanctions: armed forces of member countries could be used against the aggressor
The organisation of the League
THE ASSEMBLY: leagues parliment. met once a year (sept.)
COUNCIL:Commitee of 5 perm mems.-USA-BR-FR-IT-JP-by 1936 only perm mems. were-FR-BR & USSR. 11 non perm mems. gave advise to assembly. Met 4-5 times a year or in a emergency
SECRETARIAT:Permanent 'Civil Service' of the league. Did most of the work of the League. Britains Sir Eric Drummond was the first.
INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE: 15 judges met at the Hague-Holland. Tried to settle disputes between countries. Over such things as-Borders-Fishing-etc. BUT Had no way of making countries accept its decisions.
SPEACIAL COMMISSIONS: -International Labour Organisation (ILO) -Health Commitee-Mandates Commission-Disarmaments Commission
Reasons Why USA Did Not Join The League
In 1920 the republicans won the president election and wanted USA to be isolated from Europe. SO REJECTED PEACE SETTLEMENT AND LEAGUE OF NATIONS.
- They wanted America to keep their army out of little disputes.
- Anti-British & Anti-French Americans believed in Freedom.
- Worried About economic cost of joining the league.
- They did not want America to 'Prop up' the league as it squeezed reparation payments out of Germany.
SO USA DID NOT JOIN THE LEAGUE- A BLOW TO IT-HISTORIANS HAVE SUGGESTED THAT IF BRITAIN HAD KNOWN IN ADVANCE THAT USA WOULD NOT JOIN THEN BRITAIN WOULD HAVE DONE THE SAME.
Other weaknesses of the League
1.MEMBERSHIP WAS WEAK
42 MEMS. IN 1920& NEARLY 60 IN 1930 BUT USA DID NOT ONLY NOT JOIN- GERMANY WAS NOT ALLOWED UNTIL 1920 AND USSR NOT TILL 1934!!
ALL COUNTRIES APART FROM BRITAIN BEFORE 1946
2.BRITAIN & FRANCE PROVIDED WEAK LEADERSHIP
4. LACK OF A ARMY
5.FAULTS IN ORGANISATION
6.lEAGUE WAS TOO CLOSELY LINKED WITH PEACE TREATIES
The successes of the League
1. AALAND ISLANDS 1921
2. UPPER SILESIA 1921
3. MEMEL 1923
4. GREECE AND BULGARIA 1925
The falures of the league
1. TESCHEN 1919
2. CORFU INCIDENT
3. FLUME 1919
4. VILNA 1920
5. WAR BETWEEN POLAND & RUSSIA 1920-21
6. RUHR VALLEY 1923
7. WAR BETWEEN GREECE & TURKEY 1920-22