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What are presumptions?

What are the 4 different kinds of presumptions and what do they mean?

1. A presumption against a change in the common law

Unless the Act clearly states that what would normally happen has changed then the courts will apply the law as it is normally.

2. A presumption that mens rea is required in criminal cases

A person cannot be convicted of a crime if they did not have the intion or knowledge to do so

3. A presumption that the Crown is not bound

Parliament is not restriced by a law unless the law clearly states otherwise

4. A presumption that legislation does not apply retrospectively

Someone cannot be convicted of a crime if the law they have broken has been changed or has become irrelevant

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