Law and order


enforcing law and order Jp

self policing and community invovment in maintaining law and order.Theer was a growth in civic  responsiblity (people)landowner began to take more responsibiltiybecame jps gave them status and reflected their community. these ways became less effective in growing towns (urbanisation)

justice of the peace-chosen by land owners with special status excesswork load, burdensome. would deal with criminals.take care of minor cases eg petty theft,drunkenness,in groups could handle bigger cases eg murder, assult,rioting. In 1554 given right to detain suspects for 3 days. could give out fines,sentencing time in stocks,whipped serious cases had to be passed onto Assize court to be examined in judge and jury.they were enforcers of royal authority at local level responsible.could inforce 300 laws given instructions from Privy council.

Sir Edward Stradling welsh JP investigate price of butter 1590 London court intructed to sell property of a man, exained case of riots involving basset family.

How JP came to wales- act of union of 1536+1543 wales was formally under political control by england The structure of the english Gov resulted in the introduction 

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Enforcing law and order

Parish constabe-

Lead search hue and cry. appointed by tradesmen or farmers.They had to keep exsisting job alongside this job.Every able bodied man were bound to help.If refused were fined and placed in stocks.own affairs are neglected.They could make arrests,stop people for breaching peace,law enforcers 

Town watchmen- 1285 king Edward ordered all towns to be patrolled by night.They gave the responsibilitys to constable in morning.They carried a bell,lantern and staff.They deterred thieves and reassured townsfolk 

but they were unpaid which made the job burdensome and unpopular.poeple were too old or lazy to proform their duties to the higherst standard

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enforcing law and order 18-19

Population of wales and England 1500 2.5 m by 1700 got to 5mil. Self policing came under strain due to towns becoming bigger resulting in more crime By 1800 got to 10mil this forced a change in the methods  used to inforce law and order. and jps and constaples jobs were getting burdensome.Theif takers-konow tocapture criminals and get reward money seen in newspapers However some were corrupt and blackmailed criminals to give them protection money to keep criminal secret.Jonathan wild 1713 theif would come to him with good he would do a backgound check on goods met the victim and convince reward money for goods and then return the goods get money and take in theif to get money arrested and hanged 1725

Bow street runners- private police force set up by jps created by henry and john fielding. paided officers and trained .became successful in reducing crime levels but only covered a small area It was a small development because belief people should police themselves and gov should not get involved seen this as force of invasion and the end of freedom.It would cost a lot and be expensive.People belived it would not work and to deter criminals should give severe punishment They had own newspaper and had grant of gov to deal with high way robberies By 1829 london had 450 constables and 4000 watchmen to police a population of 1.5mil. Introduction of prevent policing rather than stoping after crime commited 

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robert peel

Government began to raise money for taxes which helped setting up of police forces.and government recognised that change was needed.Robert peel changed  set up the metropolitan police 1829 he wated paided full time law officers they would patriol streets prevent crime and apprehend criminalscalled bobbies covered 7 miles 17 districts with 144 police to read and write 1839 act extended area covered to 15 miles and brought river police and horse patrol into police reputaton improved people relised it was needed and seen benefits hatred died down and seen as part of community.. 1900 englahdn and wales had 46,800 police men and 243 separate forces.

extension of police forces 

municipal corporations act 1835 allwed towns with own gov to set up police force if they wanted to 

Rural police act 1839 allwed jps to have police force in rural areas 

Country and borough polcie act made compulsory for every country to have a police force

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specialist units

Specialist Irish branch 1883  set up due to Irish terrorism 

1878 criminal investigation department they were detectives 

criminal records office 1869 set up in scotland 

1842 the detective branch 

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The changing nature of the police force 

1900 police officers were paided the same as a manual worker  they could now make arrests,search,hold a suspect for more that 24hrs give out fines and reporting In 1900 there were 243 spererate forces new act reduced this to 117 wich made it easier to figures stand at 43 they now have greater resorces and power.A chief constable heads each force.Forces share information through National police computer  In 2016 polcie officers 124,066 29 per cent women.To get people attracted to the job hey are giving pay rises and give a good pension and they have a training college

Attitudes to police peoples trust can vary bc they enforce umpopular laws motering,not wearing a seat beltsome people see them as too powerful and too intrusive ,some police dishonest or corrupt pick on certain ethnic groups.

Women in police force 

specialisationTechnology has improved can use forensics and DNA profiling and genetic engineering 

.transportation They now use cars and helicopters,bikes ,boats to get to criminals without traffic 

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Enforcing law and order

Women in police force

Nina Boyle a suffragette formed first womens police volunteers but it was not until 1919 until first female officers appeared.They were not allwed to make arrests or carry handcuffs until 1923.until 1939 their job was limited to patrol ,escort duty and hospital duty normally looking after women and children.Since the second wrld war their work has widened.1970 that they were fully intergrated into the police force.Pauline clare 1995 first women chief constable.transportationThey now use cars and helicopters (hel intro 1980),bikes ,boats to get to criminals without traffic


Telegraph and radio telephone boxes appeared in 1920

two way radio used 1930 

camera and video used 1901 first police photo

computer technology police national computer 1974 databases,DNA records

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