- The Imperfect is a TENSE.
- A tense tells us when an action (VERB) took place, i.e past/ present/ future.
- The imperfect tense refers to a repeated/ continuos action taking place in the past.
- In Latin we can tell a verb is imperfect as it will contain the letters -ba-.
- In English we translate this as 'was/ were -ing'
monebat - he/ she/ it was warning
habitabamus - we were living
The Perfect Tense
- The PERFECT TENSE is used to describe a completed action in the past
- It is formed using the PERFECT STEM (the first half of the word that does not change) and the PERFECT ENDINGS.
- The PERFECT TENSE is translated with the ending '-ed' in English.
THE 3rd PERSON PERFECT ENDINGS ARE:
SINGULAR - '-it'
PLURAL - 'erunt'
celavit - he/ she hid
festinaverunt - they hurried
The Pluperfect Tense
- The PLUPERFECT TENSE is used to describe actions that took place further in the past then the PERFECT TENSE.
- It is formed using the PERFECT STEM
- And the letters '-era-'
legeram - I had read
surrexerat - had got up
Perfect Passive Participle
- The PERFECT PASSIVE PARTICIPLE is recognised in Latin as it has a '-t- or -s-' before its adjective ending.
- Is translated as '(having been) -ed'
aedificati - (having been) built
territi - (having been) terrified
-UR = "being"
a) cena nostra a coquo nuncparatur = Our dinner is now being prepared by the cook
b) multa scelera in hac urbe cotidie committuntur = Many crimes are being commited in the city every day
Uses of the Subjunctive
- 'cum' clause - temporal clause - cum = when
- purpose clause - 'ut' = to/ in order to
- result clause - 'tam/adeo/to' + 'ut' = so... that....
- indirect question - question word e.g 'cur/quis/quid/quot/num'
Perfect Passive Tense
The PERFECT PASSIVE is translated in English as 'has/ have been' -ed
In Latin the PERFECT PASSIVE is made up of two parts:
"perfect passive participle + present tense 'esse'"
a) dedicatus est - has been dedicated
b) missi sunt - has been sent
c) invitati estis - have been invited
The PLUPERFECT PASSIVE is translated in English as "had been -ed"
It can be recognised in Latin by the combination of the pluperfect passive participle and the verb "-esse-" in the imperfect tense.
a) servatus erat - had been saved
b) positi erant - had been places
An ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE is a temporal clause (gives the time, setting in the sentence)
In Latin an ablative absolute is made up of a noun and a participle.
They are translated as 'while/after/when'
a) arcu dedicato - after the arch had been dedicated
b) victimis sacrificatis - after the victims were sacrificied
In Latin GERUNDIVES can be spotted by '-nd-' and when used with est and sunt and dative noun/pronoun is translated as must.
a) mihi scribenda = I must write
b) tibi faciendum = You must make
c) nobis visitandus = We must visit