Latin Language

Latin Language

Tenses

Subjunctives

Passives

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  • Created by: CJ
  • Created on: 04-04-10 10:25

The Imperfect

  • The Imperfect is a TENSE.
  • A tense tells us when an action (VERB) took place, i.e past/ present/ future.
  • The imperfect tense refers to a repeated/ continuos action taking place in the past.
  • In Latin we can tell a verb is imperfect as it will contain the letters -ba-.
  • In English we translate this as 'was/ were -ing'

Examples:

monebat - he/ she/ it was warning

habitabamus - we were living

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The Perfect Tense

  • The PERFECT TENSE is used to describe a completed action in the past
  • It is formed using the PERFECT STEM (the first half of the word that does not change) and the PERFECT ENDINGS.
  • The PERFECT TENSE is translated with the ending '-ed' in English.

THE 3rd PERSON PERFECT ENDINGS ARE:

SINGULAR - '-it'

PLURAL - 'erunt'

EXAMPLES:

celavit - he/ she hid

festinaverunt - they hurried

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The Pluperfect Tense

  • The PLUPERFECT TENSE is used to describe actions that took place further in the past then the PERFECT TENSE.
  • It is formed using the PERFECT STEM
  • And the letters '-era-'

EXAMPLES:

legeram - I had read

surrexerat - had got up

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Perfect Passive Participle

  • The PERFECT PASSIVE PARTICIPLE is recognised in Latin as it has a '-t- or -s-' before its adjective ending.
  • Is translated as '(having been) -ed'


EXAMPLES:

aedificati - (having been) built

territi - (having been) terrified

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The Passive

-UR = "being"

for example:

a) cena nostra a coquo nuncparatur = Our dinner is now being prepared by the cook

b) multa scelera in hac urbe cotidie committuntur = Many crimes are being commited in the city every day

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Uses of the Subjunctive

  • '***' clause - temporal clause - *** = when
  • purpose clause - 'ut' = to/ in order to
  • result clause - 'tam/adeo/to' + 'ut' = so... that....
  • indirect question - question word e.g 'cur/quis/quid/quot/num'
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Perfect Passive Tense

The PERFECT PASSIVE is translated in English as 'has/ have been' -ed

In Latin the PERFECT PASSIVE is made up of two parts:

"perfect passive participle + present tense 'esse'"

Examples:

a) dedicatus est - has been dedicated

b) missi sunt - has been sent

c) invitati estis - have been invited

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Pluperfect Passive

The PLUPERFECT PASSIVE is translated in English as "had been -ed"

It can be recognised in Latin by the combination of the pluperfect passive participle and the verb "-esse-" in the imperfect tense.

EXAMPLES:

a) servatus erat - had been saved

b) positi erant - had been places

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Ablative Absolute

An ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE is a temporal clause (gives the time, setting in the sentence)

In Latin an ablative absolute is made up of a noun and a participle.

They are translated as 'while/after/when'

EXAMPLES:

a) arcu dedicato - after the arch had been dedicated

b) victimis sacrificatis - after the victims were sacrificied

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Gerundives

In Latin GERUNDIVES can be spotted by '-nd-' and when used with est and sunt and dative noun/pronoun is translated as must.

EXAMPLES:

a) mihi scribenda = I must write

b) tibi faciendum = You must make

c) nobis visitandus = We must visit

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Comments

Nadia Smile

You are a legend! Thanks (:

Oriane Lois Lister

Brilliant help - especially for last minute ! :)

terry krigas

A useful tool in a last minute revision of the most important and confusable Latin tenses.

Ayesha7474

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