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Indirect Statement

In an indirect statement 

  • subject- acc
  • verb-inf

indirect staements are introduced by VAN verbs. (verbs above the neck)

  • Dico- I say
  • audio-I hear
  • ****-I think
  • scio-I know

Infinitives- amo

  • present-amare- to love
  • pres. pass-amari-to be loved
  • perfect-amavisse-to have loved
  • perf. pass-amatus esse-to have been loved
  • future-amaturus esse-to be about to love

When translating an indirect command always add 'that' after the subject.

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Indirect Questions

  • Cur-why
  • quomodo-how
  • quis-who
  • quid-what
  • quantus-how big
  • quot-how many
  • quando-when
  • quotiens-how often
  • qualis-what sort of
  • ubi-where
  • quo-where to
  • num-whether

Direct- quid facilis? - what are you doing

Indirect -magister me rogavit quid facerem-the teacher asked me what I was doing

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Participles/ passives

  • Past- amatus- having been loved

                   captus- having been captured

  • Perfect- past participle+ present of sum

                       paratus est- he was prepared

  • Pluperfect- Past participle + imperfect of sum

                            paratus erat- he had been prepared

  • Other passive endings- r, ris,tur,mur,mini,ntur
  • Deponant- looks like it is passive but is acive.
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pres. - amor, amaris, amatur, amamur, amamini, amantur     

Imp.- amabar, amabaris, amabatur, amabamur, amabamini, amabantur

Fut. - amabor, amaberis, amabitur, amabimur, amabimini, amabuntur

perfect-amatus sum, amatus es. amatus est, amati summus, amati estis, amati sunt

plp-amatus eram,amatus eras,amatus erat,amatus eramus,amati eratis,amati erant

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Ablative Absolute

Noun+ Participle in the ablative

Epistola scripta- with the letter having been written.

Omnibus spectantibus- with everybody watching

  • Translate it literally on word then another , treat it as two sentences
  • always translate with the word 'with' at the begginning.
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Result Clauses

purpose clauses-ut- in order to.

                            ne- in order not to.

Ut or ne appears after the folllowing sign post words.

  • tam- so
  • tantus-so big
  • tot-so many
  • totiens-so often
  • talis-of such a kind
  • adeo-so much
  • ita-in such a way
  • sic-in such a way
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Summary of Clauses

1.) purpose= ut+.........

2.) Result= sign post+ ut+ .........

3.) Indirect command= ut+ subjunctive after verb of commanding

  • rogo-I ask
  • oro-I beg
  • impero-I order
  • persuado-I persuade
  • moneo-I warn
  • hortor-I encourage

To check use the following method:

1.) is there a sign post word?= result

2.) is there a verb of commanding?= indirect command

3.) neither?= purpose clause

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Pronouns 1

ego and tu (I, you etc.)

                                 singular                                     plural

Nominative           ego        tu                         nos               vos

accusative            me         te                         nos               vos

genitive                mei        tui                        nostrum        vestrum

dative                  mihi        tibi                        nobis            vobis

ablative               me         te                          nobis            vobis

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Deponant verbs

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addam ahmed


that was really good..... but what is with the blank sheets =)

addam ahmed


that was really good..... but what is with the blank sheets =)

wacky pensioner


Brilliant.V helpful even though unfinished

Amelia Bailey


was really good and helped a lot thanks :)

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