In an indirect statement
- subject- acc
indirect staements are introduced by VAN verbs. (verbs above the neck)
- Dico- I say
- audio-I hear
- ****-I think
- scio-I know
- present-amare- to love
- pres. pass-amari-to be loved
- perfect-amavisse-to have loved
- perf. pass-amatus esse-to have been loved
- future-amaturus esse-to be about to love
When translating an indirect command always add 'that' after the subject.
- quantus-how big
- quot-how many
- quotiens-how often
- qualis-what sort of
- quo-where to
Direct- quid facilis? - what are you doing
Indirect -magister me rogavit quid facerem-the teacher asked me what I was doing
- Past- amatus- having been loved
captus- having been captured
- Perfect- past participle+ present of sum
paratus est- he was prepared
- Pluperfect- Past participle + imperfect of sum
paratus erat- he had been prepared
- Other passive endings- r, ris,tur,mur,mini,ntur
- Deponant- looks like it is passive but is acive.
pres. - amor, amaris, amatur, amamur, amamini, amantur
Imp.- amabar, amabaris, amabatur, amabamur, amabamini, amabantur
Fut. - amabor, amaberis, amabitur, amabimur, amabimini, amabuntur
perfect-amatus sum, amatus es. amatus est, amati summus, amati estis, amati sunt
plp-amatus eram,amatus eras,amatus erat,amatus eramus,amati eratis,amati erant
Noun+ Participle in the ablative
Epistola scripta- with the letter having been written.
Omnibus spectantibus- with everybody watching
- Translate it literally on word then another , treat it as two sentences
- always translate with the word 'with' at the begginning.
purpose clauses-ut- in order to.
ne- in order not to.
Ut or ne appears after the folllowing sign post words.
- tam- so
- tantus-so big
- tot-so many
- totiens-so often
- talis-of such a kind
- adeo-so much
- ita-in such a way
- sic-in such a way
Summary of Clauses
1.) purpose= ut+.........
2.) Result= sign post+ ut+ .........
3.) Indirect command= ut+ subjunctive after verb of commanding
- rogo-I ask
- oro-I beg
- impero-I order
- persuado-I persuade
- moneo-I warn
- hortor-I encourage
To check use the following method:
1.) is there a sign post word?= result
2.) is there a verb of commanding?= indirect command
3.) neither?= purpose clause
ego and tu (I, you etc.)
Nominative ego tu nos vos
accusative me te nos vos
genitive mei tui nostrum vestrum
dative mihi tibi nobis vobis
ablative me te nobis vobis