Types of Power
Influential vs Instrumental:
- Influential - power to persuade someone e.g. persuading a friend, celebs in ads
- Instrumental - power to make somebody do something, even if they don't really want to e.g. police officer / boss
4 more types:
- Practical power: physical actions, violence, skills, money, goods, services, objects
- Position power: position in society or at work or any other hierarchal system
- Personal power: personality, nurturing, caring
- Knowledge and ideas power: ... self explanatory
- Quantity: give as much detail as necessary with out giving more than was asked for
- Quality: be truthful and do not give information which you doubt or do not have evidence for
- Manner: be polite, be orderly
- Relevance: what you say should be relevant to the conversation
Leech's Maxims (Politeness Principle)
- Tact: minimise expression of cost to other e.g. 'can I talk to you for a second?'
- Generosity: minimise expression of benefit to self, maximise expression of cost to self, focuses on speaker putting others before themselves e.g. 'you relax I'll do all the dishes'
- Approbation: maximises expression of praising other e.g. 'you were great at kareoke'
- Modesty: minimise praise and maximise dispraise of self e.g. 'I'm so stupid I forgot your book'
- Agreement: minimise expression of disagreement, maximise agreement
- Sympathy: minimise antipathy, maximise sympathy. This can include congratulations, commiserations and condolonces.
Brown and Levinson: Politeness theory
Negative politeness focuses on the speaker's negative face: the desire not to be impeded upon. Britain is a culture that stresses negative politness. Features often include:
- Modal auxiliaries
- First person plural pronouns
Positive politeness focuses on the speaker's positive face: the desire to be liked. Features often include:
- In-group markers such as 'mate'
- Exaggerated interest
Bald on record: no regard for another's face (how they want to be perceived) and not trying to avoid a face threatening act
Norman Fairclough: Synthetic Personalisation
Addressing mass audiences as if they were individuals through inclusive language, normally pronouns such as second person pronouns or first person plural pronouns.