The co-operative principle
Grice believed that conversation is a co-operative enterprise where speakers allow certain rules, which are never spelt out, to be understood and used as part of language aquisition and early socialisation.
Grice believed these rules to be:
- QUALITY - speakers must tell the truth
- QUANTITY - speakers must give right amount of imformation
- RELEANCE - get the the point and stay on the point of conversation
- MANNER - present material in an orderly way.
TACITURN - reluctance/unwillingness to speak
LACONIC - only speak when you've got something good to say
VERBOSE - talking too much
GARRULOS - speaking rubbish
Lakoff's Politeness Principles
Lakoff belieed that a co-operative conversation required:
- not imposing
- giving options
- making the reciever feel good.
Breaking the rules
We do flout Lakoff's and Grice's maxims regularly it is a MARKED ACTIVITY i.e. we do it on purpose.
Examples of this are hyperbole, irony, ambiguity, puns and metaphors.
The understanding of the effects we create when we break the rules on purpose is called CONVERSATIONSAL IMPLICATURE.
What to look out for in texts in relation to power
- Who has the power?
- What is the function of the conversation?
- What is the context?
- Are there any phatic features?
- Is anyone asking questions?
- What do they call each other?
- Any pauses or signs of hesitance?
- How politearethey being to one another?
- Are there any ajacency pairs or three-part exchanges?
- How polite are they being to one another?
- Are there any pragmatics?
PHATIC TALK: Small/chatty talk
INTERACTIONAL TALK: Conversational, socialising
TRANSACTIONAL TALK: Wanting to get something
PERFORMATIVE TALK: Does something practical in talk e.g "I do" in wedding ceromony.
BACKCHANNELING: words, phrases or non-verbal soundsused to agree or show you are listening to the speaker/s
TAG QUESTION: Turning a statement into a question to get affirmation e.g. "I like this top, do you?"