1962- Mira Komarosky
DIFFERENT TOPICS OF CONVERSATION
- Men speak more about physical matters e.g sport, money and work
- Women speak more about emotional matters e.g family
1974- Peter Trudghill
PRESTIGE ATTACHED TO NON-STANDARD FORMS
- Women of each class use prestige variant more than men of the same class
- Using non standard variable is not just a working-class thing, its also a male thing
- Women tend to be less secure than men in terms of social status therefore they use more prestigious language to overcome their inferior position
- Men already have high status and therefore convert and use non standard language to seem tough, rebellious and down to Earth
- Women overt- acceptable to wider mainstrean society
- Men covert- gain approval of the minority group
1974- Robin Lakoff
1) Women's words
-relate to womens specific interests e.g sewing terms and fine colour words such as lavender
adjectives- either neutral or woman only e.g: neutral= great, cool e.g: woman only= sweet lovely
weak expletives instead of shear words e.g 'oh dear' instead of '****'
intensifiers- 'I like him so much'
2) Women's grammar
- tag questions- 'its hot in here isnt it?'-> inforces uncertainty
- hedges- 'kind of', 'sort of'
- hypercorrect grammar- comply with grammatical rules e.g by avoiding double negatives such as 'i didnt have none'
- rise of innotation (Q: when shall we eat?...A: oh, in about half an hour. (this implies weakness and uncertainty)
- speaking in italics- use exaggerated innotation and stress for emphasis 'i really wish you wouldnt do that'
1975- Zimmerman and West
Male interruptions and overlaps
- Both genders rarely interrupt or overlap their conversational parteners in single gender pairs
- Men overlap and interrupt more when talking to women
- Women tend to speak less than men in mixed-gender conversations as they keep getting interrupted so they tend to keep falling silent
- A single gender conversation has shorter amount of silence than mixed-gender conversation
1989- Jennifer Coates
- Talk is central to womens friendship
- use minimal responses such as 'uh huh' to show they are listening and encourage the speaker to go on
- may complete the speakers utterance with or for them
- Womens talk is a great skill- monitoring each other carefully
1990- Deborah Tannen
Differences are culture, not gender
- Are concerned with status and independance e.g they inturrupt each other alot
- Give direct orders e.g 'pass me that' and dont mind conflict
- Interested in gaining factual information and finding solutions to problems
- Interested in forming bonds- tent to talk less and agree more with men
- Give polite 'indirect orders' e.g 'would you mind passing that?' and try to avoid conflict
- Aim to show understanding by compromising and offering support rather than solutions.
1992- Janet Holmes
Tag questions arent just about uncertainty
- modal tags- seek information
- affective tags- softening/concern
- facilitative tags- drawing listener in
61% of modal tags are used by men, 75% facilitative tags are used by women