Sara Mills - 1995
- Male terms suggest positive meanings, but the female terms suggest negative meanings. some female marked forms have therfore undergone semantic derogation.
- Female terms often are suggestive of promiscuity.
1 of 8
- Working class are associated with roughness and toughness which are supposedly characteristics of working class life.
2 of 8
- Men issue commands, women make proposals or offer ideas
- Women often suggest that people do things in indirect ways such as 'lets', 'why don't we'. Men may use and prefer to to hear a direct imperative.
3 of 8
- Suggested that women use tag questions more than men do.
- Found that both sexes use tag questions to check facts (the meeting is at 3pm, right?).
- Found that women use tag questions after expressing an opinion to seek confirmation/approval of that opinion (it's lovely sherry, isn't it?).
4 of 8
- In studies of heterosexual couples, women ask more questions, not just tag questions.
- They are used as opening moves in a conversation, 'how was your day?'.
- Women use them to find a topic the man wants to talk about.
- Men are not unwilling to talk once they get a topic they like, then they will do more of the talking.
- Women do the work of facilitating talk.
5 of 8
- Tag questions generally used by men to check facts.
- When women use tag questions it was not because they sought rassurance or confirmation. They were simply allowing the person being addressed the opportunity to speak.
- This is called 'facilitative' use of tag questions.
- She concluded that women prefer a co-operative style of interaction in which everyone is actively encouraged to contribute.
6 of 8
- The speaker's role in the conversation is a better predictor of tag question use than gender is.
- Teachers, vets, police officers and lawyers use tag questions frequently their job is to get people to talk and respond.
- This does not support Holmes' theory that women use facilitative tag questions to make converstaion interactive. Women who were not playing facilitative roles did not use facilitative tags frequently.
7 of 8
- Found that across social classes men use non-standard forms of English more than women.
- Men use non-standard forms to gain covert prestige.
- Women tend to use standard forms and hypercorrect language.
8 of 8