Language Acquisition

Children's Writing.

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Stages of Spelling

Stage 1: Pre-Phonemic: Imitation of writing; 'pretend writing'

Stage 2: Semi-Phonetic: Linking letter shapes and sounds to produce words

Stage 3: Phonetic: Understanding of phoneme-grapheme relationship

Stage 4: Transitional: Acquisition of more complex letter and sounds combinations

Stage 5: Conventional: Near adult spelling.

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Spelling Errors

Insertion: Adding extra letters

Omission: Leaving out letters

Substitution: Substituting one letter for another

Transposition: Reversing the correct order of letters in a word

Salient sounds: Writing only the key sounds

Phonetic spelling: Using sound awareness to help with spelling an unfamilliar word

Over/Under generalisation :Either applying a learnt rule in all contexts/failing to understand that it can be applied across a range of words.

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Stages in Children's Writing (KROLL)

Stage 1: The Preparatory Stage: Basic motor skills are learnt The principles of the spelling system are acquired.

Stage 2: The Consolidation Stage (7 Years): Children begin to use the writing system to express what they can say in speech Writing reflects spoken language Key features include strings of clauses linked by and and other conversational structures

Stage 3: The Differentiation Stage (9 Years):Writing begins to develop its own patterns. Children begin to experiment with new structures found in their reading. They develop the need to produce different kinds of writing for different audiences and purposes. The need to see writing as a medium to use language as a way of shaping thought is realised. Teacher guidance is crucial in teaching drafting, revising and editing skills

Stage 4: The Integration Phase (13-14 Years): The development of a personal voice with varied stylistic choice.

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