Stages of Spelling
Stage 1: Pre-Phonemic: Imitation of writing; 'pretend writing'
Stage 2: Semi-Phonetic: Linking letter shapes and sounds to produce words
Stage 3: Phonetic: Understanding of phoneme-grapheme relationship
Stage 4: Transitional: Acquisition of more complex letter and sounds combinations
Stage 5: Conventional: Near adult spelling.
Insertion: Adding extra letters
Omission: Leaving out letters
Substitution: Substituting one letter for another
Transposition: Reversing the correct order of letters in a word
Salient sounds: Writing only the key sounds
Phonetic spelling: Using sound awareness to help with spelling an unfamilliar word
Over/Under generalisation :Either applying a learnt rule in all contexts/failing to understand that it can be applied across a range of words.
Stages in Children's Writing (KROLL)
Stage 1: The Preparatory Stage: Basic motor skills are learnt The principles of the spelling system are acquired.
Stage 2: The Consolidation Stage (7 Years): Children begin to use the writing system to express what they can say in speech Writing reflects spoken language Key features include strings of clauses linked by and and other conversational structures
Stage 3: The Differentiation Stage (9 Years):Writing begins to develop its own patterns. Children begin to experiment with new structures found in their reading. They develop the need to produce different kinds of writing for different audiences and purposes. The need to see writing as a medium to use language as a way of shaping thought is realised. Teacher guidance is crucial in teaching drafting, revising and editing skills
Stage 4: The Integration Phase (13-14 Years): The development of a personal voice with varied stylistic choice.