Language Acquisition

How children learn language

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Language Acquisition

Before birth - even before birth a baby has started to become acclimatized to the sounds of its native language.

Crying - A baby expresses itself vocally through crying.

Vegative - crying, coughing and sucking are sounds of discomfort or relflex actions.

Cooing - Comfort sounds / vocal play = hard consonants and vowels produced as well as pitch and loudness.

Phonemic expansion and contraction - The variety of sounds intially increases and then reduced to the sounds of the main language.

Holophrastic - One word utterances are to develop.

Over extension - Where the word used to label something is stretched to include things that aren't normally part of the words meanings.

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Under extension - Where the word used to label something is reduced to include only part of its actual meaning.

Telegraphic - Where a child can place two words together to form a short phrase.

Questions - formed by raising intonatation (coupla verb)

Negatives - Usulla Bellugi identified three stages: 1. Uses no or not at the begining or end of sentance. 2. Moves no / not inside the sentance. 3. Attacks the negative to auxilary verbs and the coupla verb 'be' searely.

Pronouns - Usulla Bellugi identified three stages: 1. Uses own name, 2. Recognises the i/me pronoun and they can be used in different places of a sentance. 3. The child uses them accordingly to whether they are in the subject or object position.

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Post Telegraphic: Remaining function words are acquired and used appropriately. Combine clause structures by using coordinating conjunctions (and) and subordinating conjunctions (because) to make complex sentences. Manipulative verb aspects more accurately and they construct longer noun phrases.

Morphological stage: Children need to understand free morphemes and bound morphemes. Free morphemes - one that can stand alone as an independent word. Bound morpheme - One that cannot stand alone as an independent word.

Virtuous errors: Syntactic errors made by young children in which the non- standard utterance reveals some understanding though incomplete.

Overgeneralisation - A learners extension of a word meaning or grammatical rule beyond its normal use.

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Paul Hickman


Excellent, but maybe proof-read?

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