- Looked at the pronunciation of the suffix ending 'ing'
- Non standard forms occured more in men than women
- Men tend to use covert prestige.
JENNY CHESIRE (1982)
- Looked at the language of teenagers in reading
- Boys have more non - standard forms than women
- Boys belonged to a denser network than women
- Their language converged towards the vernacular to show social solidarity
ROBIN LAKOFF (1975)
Showed that mens language showed aurthority and women's lacked in some way:
- Women's language lacks in comparison to men
- Women use more WH imperatives
- Women hedge more
- Speak less fequently
- Use less taboo language
- Use empty adjectives
- Lack a sense of humour
- Use more intensifiers
- Apologise more
- Women were more co-operative in same sex conversations
- Tend to use more positive politeness
- Men use insults as a way of expressing solidarity
- They are less likely to save face
- Status vs. Support
For men conversation is a way of building status whereas for women it is about seeking and providing support
- Advice vs. Understanding
Women seek comfort and sympathy whereas men seek a solution
- Information vs. Feeling
For women conversations are about building relationshiops whereas for men its about communicating information
- Orders vs. Proposals
Men use direct imperatives wheras women use superpolite forms (Let's)
- Conflict vs. Compromise
Women tend to avoid conflict in comparison to men.
- Independence vs. Intimacy
Women tend to seek intamacy whereas men seek independence
Men prefer topics where they can take turns on being the expert. whereas women are more personal.
Men ask questions to seek information.
Women use three times more tags than men to try and keep the conversation going