It is NOT an overnight process. It did not happen in 1755 or any specified date. It is forever ongoing.
- Caxton's printing press: East Midlands dialect became the standard as Caxton printed in that dialect, it was spreaded across the country.
- Grammarians: They set grammatical rules based on Latin and Greek, quite a few of them arbitrary and illogical to English as a language, but they still ended up existing. Their rules became institutionalised and thus widely accepted.
- Lexicographers nad their dictionaries set spelling rules and definitions
- One of the biggest factors is hte King James' authorised Bible, as people began to be able to read in their own language.
Standardisation involves grammar as well as spelling (grammar and orthography)
"Standard" is a very ambiguous, since it can indicate the norm, but it can also indicate a concept of quality. No English is inherently good or bad.
The spelling irregularities in pre-standard texts are not wrong, or bad. They are simply a proof that there was no set way of spelling and it was just done as it was.
Globalisation of English is occuring due to increased trading as well as technology being global.