Children are not being taught to write properly therefore they are unable tot express their views
Punctuation is not being taught properly
· Have to understand words before you are able to abbreviate.
o Only most literate are able to manipulate language.
· Technology added new dimension - texting has a negligible effect on language.
· Use of abbreviations & initialisms in texting is used in order to not waste characters.
· Spelling made by people.
o Urban & online dictionaries reflect popular choices.
Descriptivist - language is inevitably going to change
"change is one thing, decay is another" - "real 'rules' need to be distinguished from artificially imposed ones"
MYTH 1 = Crumbling Castle
English was once a great castle, over time it has decayed + crumbled
JA = Never a time the lang has reached perfection - always had flaws - lang constantly changing + growing
MYTH 2 = Damp Spoon
'bad Eng' sticks to people who are lazy - laziness causes langauge chnage
JA = People adapt their lang to fit with the situation
MYTH 3 = Infectious Disease
'Bad English' is like a horrible disease that spreads from person to person
JA = People pick up changes because they want to
Creating new words can be seen as intelligent + intellectual
Addition of multiple slang words show creative use of English
New words are expanding the langauge
There has never been a 'Golden Age' for language - language has never been in a perfect form
There may be a decline in language because young people are not being taught it properly
Spoken language is not in decline
Matched Guise Test
looked at 3 main parameters - status, personality + persuasiveness
Status = RP
Personality = RP (self-confident, intelligent, ambitious, cold + ruthless) Northern (honest, reliable, generous, sincere, warm + humorous)
Persuasiveness = Had to conduct 'Howard Giles Capital Punishment experiment'
'Howard Giles Capital Punishment experiment'
RP = more prestigious
Regional = more persuasive
Studied final consonant in words like 'walking and 'talking'
Standard British English - pronounced -ng
Nowich - pronouned -n
-n type forms more common in lower classes
Non-standard form more common in men's speech
Higher classes pronounce -ng
Women use more prestigious pronunciation + appeared to be more concerned about appearing to use more standard forms even when they didn't
Elaborated and restricted code
Elaborated code = spells everything out - necessary so that everyone can understand it. It has to elaborate bc the circumstances do not allow speakers to condense
Restricted code = context is needed in order to understand
If you can't handle elaborated code, yout are not going to suceed in the educational system