- Created by: charlotte_young_
- Created on: 11-01-18 11:08
What are borrowings?
- Relates to all the words of the English language that have been 'borrowed' from other languages.
- English is often referred to as a magpie languguage because it has borrowed so widely from other places in the same way a magpie is known for constructing a new from other sources.
- Words have been borrowed from other languages in addition to the main ones:
What is morphological derivation?
- Process of creating a new word out of an old word by adding, taking away etc.
What is a homonym?
- Words that are spelt the same but have very different meanings.
- Could could call them semantically diverse.
What is a homophone?
- Words of a different meaning that sound/are pronounced in an identical way.
What is polysemy?
- The word given to an aspect of language where several of the words have more than one meaning.
- Polysemy grew considerably in the English language in the 1500 and 1600's.
- Polysemic language is likely to cause confusion.
What is morphology?
Morphology is the study of words.
What are the 2 types of morpheme?
1) Free morpheme.
A small indivisible unit of language. These words exist on their own and do not have to be attached to another unit of language to make sense.
2) Bound morpheme.
A small indivisble unit of language. These are not words but they can be attached to free morphemes to form a new word (neologism).
- The bound morpheme can either be a prefix or a suffix.
What are the 4 processes of lexical change?
- Affixation is the process of adding a bound morpheme (either a prefix or a suffix) to a word.
- For exmaple, email andchildish.
- Backformation involves the removal of an affix to a word.
- For example, editor becomes edit.
- Compound words are made when adding 2 free morphemes together.
- For example, fireworks and lifetime.
- Blended words are formed when 2 words have been merged into 1.
- For example, smog and internet.
What are semantics?
- The meanings of words.
What are synonyms?
- 2 words that have similar meanings.
What are the 4 processes of semantic change?
- Narrowing is a semantic shift by which a words meaning becomes less general than before.
- For example, flood used to count for several types of water but now just refers to an excess of water.
- Broadening is the change in the meaning of a word by expansion, so that the word is applicable in more contexts than it previously was and means more than it previously did.
- The different interpretations of gay.
- Pejoration is a change in the meaning of a word causing it to loose status.
- Amelioration is a change in the meaning of a word that causes it to gain status.
What is a lexical gap?
Something that isn't covered by our lexis.
They can appear because factors such as generational change, advanaces in technology and cutltural chnage make a need for new words.
What are the 8 causes of orthographic change?
2) The great vowel shift.
3) Variation was tolerated.
5) Middle English scribes.
6) Borrowing vocabulary.
8) Wanting to emulate the Greeks.
What is orphology?
- The study of spelling.
What is etymology?
- Study of origin/history of words.
What is phonology?
- Study of sound of words/ pronunciation.
What is standardisation?
- The process of taking a variation of written English and using it as an accepted 'standard' or 'proper' use of language.
- Whilst Standard English is in actual fact a variety of language it has been invested with a status over a period of time.
What is a closed-word class?
- A word class that theoretically cannot have any words added to them.
- They are things like prepositions or pronouns.
What is an open-word class?
- Open-word classes can have new words (neologisms) added due to a new of factors (e.g. social, technological etc.).
- Open-word classes are things such as nouns.
What are lexical gaps?
- A lexical gap exists when something exists for which there is no word for.
- As new things are invented, new habits are formed, new discoveries are made and new concepts are imagined so a lexical gap is created.
What is a eupthemism/dystphemism?
- A eupthemism is a non-offensive wprd or a word chosen for its vagueness in order to avoid causing offense.
- Conversly, a dystphemism is a word considered offensive.
- Pinker argued that a word that is a eupthemism will eventually become a dysphemism (a word used with the intention of causing offence - so used mockingly or hurtfully).
- This will mean that new eupthemisms must rise in their place if we are to avoid causing offence.
What is polysemy/monosemy?
- Polysemy is to do with a language where there are words that have more than one meaning.
- Monosemy is to do with language that has word that only have a single meaning .
- English is a good example of a polysemic language where lots of words have more than one meaning.