- Created by: lwilson23
- Created on: 07-02-19 14:51
Power and Critical Discourse Analysis
- power is defined as the ability to get your own way - using language to influence or control human behaviour.
- Genldner described that power is 'the ability to enforce one's moral claims.'
- Norman Fairclough came up with the idea of CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS - the belief that language should be viewed as a form of social practice. Has links to how societal power relations are established and reinforced through language use. Coexistance between language and society.
- he also posited that all interactions have the potential to be 'unequal encounters' - with inequality in some situations being accepted because of the wider context surrounding them.
- he also made reference to the persuasive nature of some texts because the individual ideologies which they express within them relate to the reader in some way (i.e. when a text makes natural assumptions about what a reader values as 'correct' or 'proper').
- the ideological nature of language therefore helps create power dynamics in language.
The Four Types of Power
- Wareing proposed four types of power which may be granted through language use:
1 - Instrumental Power - the authority imposed by those in a postition of power (law/education).
2 - Influential Power - persuasive language often used to persuade others to do something (advertising/media).
3 - Political Power - used in politics and is often concerned with spreading certain ideologies.
4 - Personal/Social Group - the power someone has due to social factors/their social group.
- the same theorists/linguistic concepts can be used in a language and power question as for a language and situation question (Grice, Goffman etc.).