Language and Gender

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Women swear just as much as men

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Men turn take in same sex convo, women speak simultaneously.

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Obar and Atkins

power = dominance (courtroom research).

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Byng and Bergwall

diversity model = social background dictates language

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Deborah Cameron

diversity model = more differences between the same gender.

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Norwich - men use covert prestige, women use overt prestige.

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Otto Jesperson (1922)

Deficit model = female language is unfinished/avoid complex syntax

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Shirley and Edwin Ardener

Dominance model

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Lakoff (1956)

Women's language - deficit model - women regarded as weaker sex

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Janet Holmes

referential / affective tag questions - men more referential

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Deborah Tannen

Difference model - men and women brought up in different environments

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Pamela Fishman

division of labour - women work harder in conversation

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Janet Hyde

difference between men and women is close to zero

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men are dominant

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Zimmerman and West

men interrupt more

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interruptions might mean support rather than dominance

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Jane Pilkington (1992)

women in same sex talk more collaborative. Women use positive politeness / men less supportive

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Koenraad Kuiper (1991)

men's rugby team. insults a sign of solidarity. men don't worry about saving face

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Germaine Greer

female comedy comments on blog - common women's themes are bras, period, chocolate and Weightwatchers

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Mills (1991)

feminine style of speech used for social control - women carefully monitor behaviour to ensure that it's appropriate

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Norman Fairclough

Synthetic personalisation - making it sound like you are speaking to an individual when addressing a mass audience e.g. "see you after the break"

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people ask questions to demonstrate power

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Eakins and Eakins (1976)

men speak for longer

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Edelsky (1981)

men take longer turns / joke more, argue more, direct more

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Herbert and Straight (1989)

compliments flow from those of higher rank to those of lower rank

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Herring (1992)

email discussion - 5 women, 30 men took part, even though women nearly 50% of members. Men's messages twice as long. women use personal voice, men assertive

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Holmes (1998)

women managers more likely to negotiate consensus than males - take more time to make sure everyone is in agreement

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Holmes and Marra (2002)

women use just as much humour as men, and for same functions, although they are more likely to encourage supportive and collaborative humour

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Hornyak (1994)

shift from work talk to personal talk always initiated by highest ranking person in the room

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Tracy and Eisenberg (1990/91)

role playing delivering criticism to co-worker about errors in business letter. men showed more concern for feelings of person they were criticising when in subordinate role, while women showed more concern when in the superior role

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