Women swear just as much as men
Men turn take in same sex convo, women speak simultaneously.
Obar and Atkins
power = dominance (courtroom research).
Byng and Bergwall
diversity model = social background dictates language
diversity model = more differences between the same gender.
Norwich - men use covert prestige, women use overt prestige.
Otto Jesperson (1922)
Deficit model = female language is unfinished/avoid complex syntax
Shirley and Edwin Ardener
Women's language - deficit model - women regarded as weaker sex
referential / affective tag questions - men more referential
Difference model - men and women brought up in different environments
division of labour - women work harder in conversation
difference between men and women is close to zero
men are dominant
Zimmerman and West
men interrupt more
interruptions might mean support rather than dominance
Jane Pilkington (1992)
women in same sex talk more collaborative. Women use positive politeness / men less supportive
Koenraad Kuiper (1991)
men's rugby team. insults a sign of solidarity. men don't worry about saving face
female comedy comments on blog - common women's themes are bras, period, chocolate and Weightwatchers
feminine style of speech used for social control - women carefully monitor behaviour to ensure that it's appropriate
Synthetic personalisation - making it sound like you are speaking to an individual when addressing a mass audience e.g. "see you after the break"
people ask questions to demonstrate power
Eakins and Eakins (1976)
men speak for longer
men take longer turns / joke more, argue more, direct more
Herbert and Straight (1989)
compliments flow from those of higher rank to those of lower rank
email discussion - 5 women, 30 men took part, even though women nearly 50% of members. Men's messages twice as long. women use personal voice, men assertive
women managers more likely to negotiate consensus than males - take more time to make sure everyone is in agreement
Holmes and Marra (2002)
women use just as much humour as men, and for same functions, although they are more likely to encourage supportive and collaborative humour
shift from work talk to personal talk always initiated by highest ranking person in the room
Tracy and Eisenberg (1990/91)
role playing delivering criticism to co-worker about errors in business letter. men showed more concern for feelings of person they were criticising when in subordinate role, while women showed more concern when in the superior role