the smallest unit that can distinguish one word from another

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a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language

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Single vowel sounds, occur at 2 months

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Consonant vowel pairs like ba, da, occur at 3-4 months

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Reduplicated babbling

Repeating consonant vowel pairs, like baba, occurs at 6 months

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Non-reduplicated babbling

Babbling that reflects sounds and intonations of mother tongue, occurs at 7-10 months

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Pre-linguistic use of a single word to express a complex idea, occur at 12-18 months

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Telegraphic speech

speech during the two-word stage of language acquisition in children, which is laconic and efficient, occurs at 18-24 months

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Basic-level words

Words that denote the whole, such as dog, the ones we learn first

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Above basic-level words, categories such as animal, the words we learn secondly

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Categories within basic-level words, like beagle

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When specific names are treated as basic-level terms 

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Used by two-year-olds and enables them to learn a word after one exposure

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occurs when children extend a regular rule to an irregular word

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Simultaneous bilingualism

Learning two languages from birth

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Sequential bilingualism

Learning a second language later

Can be early or late sequentialism depending on when in life you learn the new language

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Manual babbling

When deaf babies "babble" signs with their hands

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Nicaraguan sign language

first language without a model

No deaf community in Nicaragua before 1970s, they used homesign of which every household had a different one

Late 70s/early 80s deaf schools first opened and homesign systems converged into early sign language

Over generations, children started adding to the complexity of the language

The most fluent signers are the youngest

The sign language evolved from gestural (pantomimes) to combinatorial system, combining components of a sign

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Homesign systems

Homesign are the signs used within families with deaf members to communicate between family members

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Combinatorial system

Combining components of a sign

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Bedouin sign language

The Al-Sayyid Bedouin group, a community of 3500 in Israel

High population of deaf people, most people can sign even when hearing

Has been around 70 years, around three generations

Less grammatically complex than Nicaraguan, because NSL is passed to a new cohort of 15-20 learners each year, which approximates a 20-year Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language generation

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was found at 14 years old, abused by her father, was tied to a chair and only barked and growled at, has semantic understanding but never developed syntactic competency or ability to use function words correctly

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found age 6, had no language and cognitive development below 2-year old level, her mother was deaf and had never spoken to her, within a year she spoke nearly as well as other 7-year olds of normal intelligence

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Critical period

A time period when you need some language input to be able to develop normal speech

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Language acquisition device

an innate system that permits them, once they have acquired sufficient vocabulary, to combine words into grammatically consistent, novel utterances and to understand the meaning of sentences they hear

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Universal grammar

a built-in storehouse of rules common to all languages

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Linguistic determinism hypothesis

language shapes the nature of thought

Language structure determines how you see things and think

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Linguistic relativity hypothesis

language may influence the way we think and perceive

A milder form

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Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

Strong form: Linguistic determinism hypothesis

Weak form: Linguistic relativity hypothesis

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