- Created by: mooearm19
- Created on: 12-05-18 16:16
- Coinage - creation of a new word
- Borrowing - borrowing words from other langauges
- Compounding - words combinded to create new words
- Clipping - shortened words
- Blending - combination of clipping and compounding
- Acronym - NATO
- Initailism - OMG/MP3
- Affixation - 'dininterest'/'regift'
- Functional shift - shift from one word class to another
- Eponym - name of person/company used to define object
- Back formation - verb created by removing suffix
- Broadening - meaning of word broadens
- Narrowing - meaning of word narrows
- Ameiloration - word aquires a more pleasant meaning
- Pejoration - word becomes less favourable
- Weakening - reduction in the force of a word
- Metaphor - abstract ideas as additional meanings
- Euphemism - polite expressions for unpleasant things
- Polysemy - word aquires many possible meanings
- Verb inflections - pleaseth/pleases
- Formation of past tense - I am come/I came
- Use of modal and auxiliary verbs - especially 'do'
- Personal pronoun system - thee/thou/ye
- Relative pronoun system - Our father which art/Our father who art
- Formation of negatives - I see not/I do not see
- Formation of questions - seest thou/do you see
- Noun and adjective endings or inflections - mankinde/mankind
- Formation of plurals - shoon/shoes
The History of the English Language
Early Modern English
Invasion of England by the Celtics
1066 Norman Invasion and French taking over
Chaucer's Canterbury Tales
Standardisation - Caxton's Printing Press
Establishing an English Language
There are two views in establishing an English Language:
Pescriptivist vs Descriptivist
Inkhorn Controversy and The Francais Academie
Aitchson/Mackinnon. John McWhorter/John Humphreys/Lindsay Young
vocal fry/uptalk/texting/Ghetto Grammar
Damp Spoon Syndrome
Language can be :
Correct/Incorrect - cant be fixed Pleasant/Ugly - personal preference
Socially or morally acceptable/unacceptable - taboo
Aproppriate/Inappropriate - in context Useful/Useless
Why does change happen?
- Historical Events/changing social climate
- External factors eg. technology/war/informailty
- Internal factors
- Ease of articulation
- Neatening/regularisation eg. plurals/tenses/endings
- Random Fluctuation Theory - lang change isn't a logical/ordered pocess
How does change spread?
- Social mobility
- Interaction and transmission
- Innovation and diffusion
- Subtratum Theory - new learners learn the langauge imperfectly and then pass this version onto the next generation.
English as a Gobal Language
Colonisation - Pidgins emerged as the slaves didn's speak the same languages so became a form of communication between each other and their masters.
Pidgins and Creoles
L1 and L2 from the first and second diasporas
English as a Lingua Franca
Different World Englishes eg. Indian English or Hinglish
Theorists and Attitudes
Kachru - world wodel
Strevens - world model
Schneider - 'dynamic model' of post-colonial English
Jenkins - 5 Characteristics of ELF
Crystal - nothing can stop English and a Global Langauge
Graddol - 'current global wave of English may lose momentum' - give way to Chinese/Spanish
Nerriere - 'Globish' and a stripped down form of English
Seidhofer - Language can be more accessible through grammar
Pagel - Abrupt punctuation change
Lim - 'ecology of langauge'
Examples of World English varieties
Phonology - Indian English 'retroflex' for constonants /t/ and /d/
- Some African Englishes replace 'schwa' in butter /b^tə/ with full vowel sound /b^t3:/
- Stress-timed (English) or syllable-timed (French/Spanish)
Vocabulary - US English/Canadian English/Australian English
Grammar - limited marking of past tense or not marking plural endings on nouns in some Englishes
Studies and Theories:
Oakland Proposal - wanted teachers to learn to understand 'Ebonics' and for it to be used in schools. Ministry of Education refused to pay for the education of the teachers as didn't acknowledge 'Ebonics' as a foreign language.
Ann Arbor School - parents sued school for not recognising the idenity of the students who used 'Ebonics', the court agreed that the school should find a way to identify the Black English and teach them Standard American English.
Windrush - in reference to British Black English
Gary Ives - Asian English code-switching in Bradford and South London schools
Labov - Language and identity in the Martha's Vineyard case and how this links to how the users of Black English are establishing and identity.
Attitudes to Ethnic Language
Debate as to whether 'Ebonics' is a langauge or a dialect
Should Black English be used in schools to teach?
McWhorter - Against the Oakland Proposal as he said it was not for an educational purpose but to fight racism which he believes to be media fuled. “inner city backgrounds do not prepare many children to be receptive to education in school.
Labov - Believed that the Oakland Proposal should be allowed to try and children learn better in their First Language.
Graddol - Language is evolving to become more than just English
Kerwill - Multi-Ethic Youth Dialect is being created in London due to new identities through comminities of practise and immigration.
Kachru's concentric circles of World English model