L + P
AIM: To investigate how information supplied after an event, influences a witness's memory for that event
METHOD: Lab eperiment & independent measures design. IV in both was verb used in critical question. DV in 1st experiment was estimate of speed, In 2nd was critical question about broken glass
SAMPLE: In 1st experiment 45 students, in 2nd 150 students
EXPERIMENT 1: students were shown 7 film clips, then asked to write an account including answering some questions. There were 5 conditions, 5 verbs used; hit, contacted, smashed, collided & bumped.
EXPERIMENT 2: students shown 1 minute clip, then asked to write an account & answer some questions. 50 were asked hit, 50 were asked smashed & 50 were not asked about the speed of the car. They came back 1 week later and were asked if they saw any broken glass. This was part of a longer series of questions and was placed in a random position on each participants question paper. There was no broken glass in the film
Background: Sally-Anne Test
Triad of impairments: (i) difficulties with social interaction (ii) difficulties with verbal & non-verbal communication (iii) a lack of imaginative play
AIM: to investigate if high functioning adults with autism would be impaired on a theory of mind test called the 'Eyes Task' The researchers were also interested to find out if females would be better than males on the 'Eyes Task'
METHOD: quasi experiment
SAMPLE: Group 1 was 16 with autism, with normal IQ, 13 men & 3 women, recruited by an advert in a magazine and clinics. Group 2 was 50 (25 male & 25 female) age-matched 'normal' people, selected randomly. Group 3 was 10 with Tourette's recruited from a referral centre. Also age matched, with 8 men & 2 women,also normal IQ
EYES TASK: 25 photo of eyes & emotion is recognised. They were all the same sixe, in black & white & all of the same region of the face
STRANGE STORIES TASK: stories were shown, they had to answer a question that accompanied it. This tests high functioning theory of mind
CONTROL TASKS: gender recognition (identifying the gender of a sets of eyes) & basic emotion recognition (basic emotions of full-face photos)
Background: Nim Chimpsky
AIM: to describe the initial results of the first longitudinal attempt to investigate the language acquisition capacity of pygmy chimps & to contrast it with common chimps
METHOD: longitudinal quasi-experimental with formal tests (Kanzi was serendipitous)
SAMPLE: 2 pygmy chimps (Kanxi & Mulika) & 2 common chimps (Sherman & Austin)
Used an electronic lexigram & outside they used a laminated one. At 6 months, Kanzi watched his mother being taught to use the lexigram. Common chimps were trained to use the lexigrams, they couldn't interpret spoken language.
They all had to meet the components of language: Semantics (branch of linguistics & logic concerned with meaning), Grammar (whole system & structure of a language), Pragmatics (branch of linguistics dealing with language in use & the contexts in which it is used) & had to occur spontaneously on 9 out of 10 occasions. They were tested informally as well as formally to increase validity
Kanzi exceeded in most areas, he learned to use the lexigrams by observations, he could conprehend spoken english and could combine many words