- WW1 ended on 11th November 1918 when Germany signed the Armistice
- January 1919 delegates from 32 countries met (Paris Peace Conference)
- Europe shattered by WW1 and economy in ruins
- over 15 million people were killed in the war
- Russian and Austrian empires collapsed
- map of Europe had to be redrawn
- many nationalities wanted 'self-determination'
1 of 7
The Big Three
Lloyd George (Britain)
- a 'comprimised peace'
- safeguard Britain's naval supremacy, land for British empire
- make Germany pay, but leave it strong enough to trade
Georges Clemenceau (France)
- a 'harsh peace'
- revenge and punish Germany with £200 billion reparations
- demilitarise Rhineland, gain land, Germany have no army
Woodrow Wilson (USA)
- a 'just peace'
- create League of Nations based on his Fourteen Points
- wanted equal disarmament and self-determination
2 of 7
Treaty of Versailles
- military restrictions: 100,000 soldiers in German army, 6 battleships in navy, no submarines, no airforce, Rhineland demilitarised, no tanks, 15,000 men in navy
- land loss: Danzig and Saar under League control, Polish Corridor, Alsace-Lorraine, Memel, Upper Silesia
- reparations: £6600 million set in 1921
- Anschluss - Germany can't unite with Austria
- League of Nations set up (Germany can't join)
- war guilt clause - Germany accept blame for the war (loss and damage)
- all German colonies given to France and Britain as 'mandates'
- Article 231
3 of 7
Saint Germain (Austria 10th September 1919)
Trianon (Hungary 4th June 1920)
Neuilly (Bulgaria 27th November 1919)
Sevres (Turkey 10th August 1920)
- each country had to lose land and reduce their military
4 of 7
Impacts of the Treaty of Versailles
- Germany thought it would be based on 14 Points
- called it a 'diktat' - a dictated peace
- called the politicians who made the peace 'November Criminals'
- extremists tried to overthrow the new democratic Weimar Republic (Spartacus 1919, Kapp Putsch 1920)
- Germany missed a reparations payment in 1923 which led to the French invading the Ruhr and hyperinflation
- the Big Three didn't get all what they wanted, had to compromise
5 of 7
Were the treaties fair?
- problems facing peacemakers were complex, could have been harsher
- Germans forced a much harsher peace on Russia in March 1918
- signed the Armistice agreeing to reduce armed forces, lose territory, pay reparations; so why surprised they were included in treaty?
- peacemakers set up League of Nations - assumed the League would deal with any issues the treaties caused
- Germany hated everything about the treaty
- America hated nearly everything too
- Britain agreed with some parts of treaty
- France agreed with some parts
6 of 7
7 of 7