korean war

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  • Created by: Tirna_
  • Created on: 21-05-16 15:28

Causes of the Korean war

Background

  • Had been under Japanese occupation since 1910
  • USA and USSR divided it along the 38th parallel
  • UN demanded free elections, US had 2/3 of the country- no agreement was reached
  • Republic of South Korea set up, Syngman Rhee
  • democratic people's republic of korea, Kim Il Sung
  • 1949 USSR and US troops withdrew, 1950 N invaded the S

who started it?

  • N blamed the S- shelled an area of the ongjin penisula & 17th regiment seized the town of haeju
  • S blamed the N, S only acting in retaliation
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context of the CW

  • USA felt under threat in its rivalry with USSR
  • 1949, USSR tested first A bomb -USA lost its nuclear superiority
  • China falling to CM was another blow to containment
  • USSR had China as a powerful ally in Asia for future expansion
  • Domino theory fears

domestic pressure

  • Reps thought T was too soft on CM
  • McCarthy withchunts began, strong anti CM feeling in the US
  • Hawks wanted CM to be dealt with agression
  • NSC 68- stronger F.policy for containment
  • Korea was an excuse to implement NSC 68 and to justify the raise in taxes
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USA change in aims

  • initial reason for intervention was to save the south from the north
  • T authorised invasion of N, now committed to removing CM in K
  • MacArthur escalated the war further into China
  • when China invaded they reverted back to the 38th parallel

results of US intervention

  • turned a local civil war into a battle between CP and CM
  • US had regained territory of the south and inflicated a defeat on the N
  • after escalating the war, China gained all of the land N of the 38th
  • 1951 a stalemate developed, Mac demanded the use of A bombs
  • peace talkes began in 1953, Stalins death and Kennedy paved the way to the armistice in july 1953
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impact of military tech

  • 6 million soldiers, 33,000 killed
  • air power v effective inflicting half the casualties
  • aircraft carriers allowed them to strike further into NK
  • considered nuclear weapons X2, to stop NK advance and to halt the Chinese army

impact on E/W relations

  • US committed to Chiang Kaishek in Taiwan - US 7th fleet sent to the seas of Taiwan as a warning to Mao
  • USA had lil sympathy for the French struggle in Vietnam - wanted to distance from Euro imperialism
  • Indochina seen as crucial in the fight against CM $1 billion in aid
  • NATO and ANZUS (aussies and nz's)
  • SEATO- bulwark to communism
  • First Hot war of the Cold war
  • avoided using nukes and insteaad used conventional weapons
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Impact in USA

  • unpopular in Murica bcuz it was prolonged and loads of casualties
  • US pub didnt understand the nature or causes of the conflict
  • NSC68, $10 billion on the army, $260 mill on the H bomb
  • ceasefire was basically the 38th parallel...idiots

results of the war, Korea:

  • a disaster, country was devasted with 5 mill homeless and it remained divided
  • Syngman remained president

USSR & China:

  •  failure as they had not intervened on behlaf od the N, China emerged as the leader of the CM movement

UN:  a tool of US f.policy

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