GENDER essay plans

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  • Created by: h98
  • Created on: 06-01-16 17:53

Kohlberg essay plan [gender]

  • A01: 3 stages - gender labelling, gender stability and gender constancy
  • A02: includes nature and nurture
  • A02: RTS - found all stages occure in same order in 6 cultures
  • A02: underestimates cognitive abilities of children
  • A01: Slaby and Frey [3-5 year olds]
  • A02: supports gender constancy cause of imitiation
  • A02: high control over extranous variables
  • A02: researcher bias- used ratings
  • A01: McConaghy [2-3 year olds]
  • A02: supports that gender constancy occures after age of 5
  • A02: findings not absolute
  • A02: low ecological validity - not real life situation
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Gender Schema essay plan [gender]

  • A01: gender identity, gender schema develops, ingroup/outgroup
  • A02: explains why understanding of gender long lasting
  • A02: over simplified- too much emphasis on gender schema
  • A02: gender schema is abstract concept so lacks scientific vallidity
  • A01: Fagot [40 children, 21-25 months]
  • A02: supports gender schemas important influence on deveopment as focus on ingroup
  • A02: high control over extraneous variables
  • A02: prone to researcher bias
  • A01: Hill and Flom [18 children, 2 years old, USA]
  • A02: supports that gender schemas deveop by age 2
  • A02: low population validity
  • A02: high ecological validity
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Genes and hormones essay plan [gender]

  • A01: introduction - bio sex, X and Y chromosomes
  • A01: Ridley- SRY gene, SOX9
  • A01: XY male, maladaptive SRY
  • A01: female mice, gentic engineering of SRY gene
  • A02: low population validity of XY female
  • A02: high scientific validity
  • A02: reductionist
  • A02: deterministic
  • A02: only considers nature
  • A01: Yalom [progesterone]
  • A02: double blind procedure, increases internal validity
  • A02: natural experiment, increases ecological validity
  • A01: Swaab and Fliers, sexual dimorphic nucleus 2.5x larger in males
  • A02: good face validity, reasonable explanation
  • A02: alpha bias, critics say more similarities than differences b/w sexes
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Evolutionary essay plan [gender]

  • A01: introduction- adaptive beh, eupms, max reproductive success
  • A01: males and females different mating behaviours
  • A02: low scientific validity
  • A02: Ethical issues- gender roles desirable/inevitable, promotes sexism
  • A02: reductionist
  • A02: outdated- paternity tests available
  • A01: Ridley [30 cultures]
  • A01: Buss [37 cultures, 10,000 ppts]
  • A02: self reports- social desirability
  • A02: Alpha bias
  • A01:Williams and Best [2,8000 ppts, questionnaire]
  • A02: No culture bias
  • A02: high population validity
  • A02: deterministic
  • A02: consistent results in different cultures, universal
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Biosocial [gender]

  • A01: introduction- bio=label, social=treatment of child
  • A01: Money and Ehrhardt- Gender Neutrality
  • A02: gender not innate and fixed
  • A02: no reductionism
  • A02: no determinism
  • A01: Baby X by Smith and LLoyd [controlled exp]
  • A01: Condry [200 adults]
  • A02: high control over extraneous variables, increases internal validity
  • A02: demand characteristics
  • A02: high in reliability
  • A02: low ecological validity
  • A01: Pseudohermaphrodites
  • A01: Bradley et al
  • A02: RTC Bruce Reimer
  • A02: RTC Reiner and Gearhart [16 biological males]
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Biosocial [gender dysphoria]

  • A01: introduction, mental disorder, caused by bio predisposition w/ social trigger
  • A01: Biological- Genetic, Hare et al [112 male to female]
  • A02: cases of people with varient, didn't develop gender dysphoria- needs biosocial exp
  • A01: Biological- Hormones, Kula- meta analysis
  • A02: Combined with social trigger provides valid explanation on gender dysphoria
  • A01: Psychodynamic- fixation during phallic stage of psychosexual development
  • A02: Stroller [overclose r/s with mother,absent father/depressed mother]
  • A01: Behavioural- operant conditioning, classical conditioning, observational learning
  • A02: Rekers [lacked stererotypical male role model]
  • A02: not reductionist
  • A02: not deterministic
  • A02: evidence provides stronger support for bio
  • A02: ethical issues- may not see as a disorder but as preference
  • A02: sole bio/social -no absolute findings, biosocial accounts for individual differences
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social influence essay plan [gender]

  • A01: Social learning theory - direct/vicarious reinforcements/ self efficacy
  • A02: formation of gender roles lays foundation for development of gender identity
  • A02: has cultural relativism [according to norms of each culture]
  • A02: reductionist
  • A02: deterministic
  • A02: children respond differently to reinforcements- other factors involved
  • A01: Fagot [children aged 2/parents reinforce gender appropriate behaviour]
  • A02: findings not absolute- other factors involved
  • A02: high ecological validity
  • A01: Baby X by Smith and Lloyd
  • A02: high control over extraneous variables
  • A02: demand characteristics
  • A01: Media- Hamilton et al [200 top selling books]
  • A02: Link between media and gender correlation
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Cultural influence [gender]

  • A02: cross-cultural research on nature/nurture
  • A01: Mead, ethnographic- Mundugumore, Arapesh, Tchambuli
  • A02: argued for cultural determinism
  • A02: researcher bias- didn't fully understand the language
  • A02: changed from cultural determinism to relativism
  • A01: Williams and Best [2,800, uni students]
  • A02: high population validity
  • A02: self reports- social desirability
  • A02: shows cultural findings universal - supports bio
  • A02: sample bias
  • A01: Dwyer- Mbuti-pygmies, Mundurucu
  • A02: although bio involved,culture overrides bio
  • A02: multidimentional approach needed
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