Kingship and Succession

I know this isnt cold war but there didnt have an option.

This is based on King Richard and King John

Richard I as King

  • September 3rd 1189, Richard I was crowned king of the Angevin Empire
  • Richard took power peacefully and set about preparing his kingdom for his absence when he left on crusade three months later
  • Richard was born in 1157 and his nickname was Lionheart

Death of Richard I 

  • In March 1199, Richard was badly wounded while fighting in France 
  • He died on 6th of April
  • As he had no children, Richard named John as his heir. 
  • However, Nepwhew Arthur (son of John's older brother) claimed that he should be king
  • This is because of the rules of primogeniture (where the eldest son inherits). Take it in mind as well is that was only about 14 ish.
  • Arthur would heirt before John beacuse Arthur was a son of an older brother
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Richard I as King

How power was secured?

When Henry died, Richard succeeded to the throne peacefully and successfully secured his power by:

  • Making peace with those who had fought against him
  • Appreasing those with other strong claims to the throne, eg. he made his brother John Count of Mortain, his half brother Archbishop of York. But then banned them from Enlgand for 3 years
  • Agreeing to that William the Lion did not have to do homage to him in return for William abandoning claims to Northern England
  • Putiing able, loyal me in charge in his absence, eg. Wlliam Longchamp
  • Winnign the support of many barons by restorting land to nobles 
  • Treating nobles and knights with courtesy and respect and inspiring loyalty with his charisma
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John as King

  • John's succession to the throne was not as smooth as Richard's had been.
  • John never really secured power at all, but was claimed to the throne in 1199, just after King Richard had died.

The Treaty of Le Goulet

  • Phillip recongnised John as King of Angevin Empire
  • John gae Phillip some land in Normandy
  • Arthur remained Duke Of Brittany, but did homage to John for this
  • John agreed to do homage to Phillip for his land in France amd pay an enormous fine for the inheritance of this land

 

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John as King

How power was secured

English and Norman barons, and his mother supported John's claim to the throne. John's biggest threat was Phillip II of France, who supported Arthur's claim and invaded Normandy when heard abput Richard's death. However, John secured power through:

  • Acting quickly by being crowned king on 27th May
  • Showing his religious devotion by visiting Canterbury and Bury St Edmunds after his coronation
  • Wisely leaving England to be un by men who had governed under Ricahrd, while going to fight for his lands in France
  • Ensuring the North of England was protected from the threat of Scottish invasion by entrusting its protection to a powerful and loyal baron
  • He married Count of Angouleme daughter Isabelle, to secure support 
  • He persauded the Count of Anjou to switch sides
  • Driving back to Phillip II's forces and makign peace in May 1200 at Le Goulet 

Peace lasted for 2 years and secured John's position as king, but only for a short tme

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