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  • Created by: Alice
  • Created on: 01-08-13 11:08

Xenophon view of kings

- king shall rule over all public sacrifices on behalf of the state

- king had the right the have certain parts of the sacrifice

- kings had to eat in the public mess tent - with chosen mess mates (pythii)

- had a house near the water

- everyone but the ephors rose when they entered the room

- it was not in the aim of Lycurgus to put in the kings "despotic pride". So they didn't get much extra than the common person - they got more honours in death

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Aristotle view of kings

- command army on foreign expeditions supervise relgious worship 

Belonged to the agiad and Eurypontid house e.g. Leonadis 1 (Agiad) and Agis II (Eurypontid)

- Herodotus: first born son was raised above others and became king

- jones: says if there were no children the throne went to the nearest male in a strict line of succession

- Darlington: dual kingship used to prevent any king from gaining too much power - no tyranny. And that it was a compromise between two powerful families. Basically a mutual check

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Privileges - War

- making war on anyone

- were allowed to pick 100 men to act as their guards

- sacrifice as many animals they wanted to in war

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Privilages - Peace

- first seats at a banquet

- served before anone, people had to stand when they entered and were allowed a double portion - to give the other portion to whomever they wanted

- recieved a beast every month to sacrifice apollo

- didn't have to come to the supper

- They decide who unmarried maidens marry - all matters on the public highway are to be judged by the kings (i.e. adopt a baby)

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Priviliages - Death

- women drum upon a kettle

- everyone must mourn - otherwise a huge fine

- all members of community must smite their foreheads and weep and wail without stint and say the last king was the best

- if he dies in battle they must create a statue of him

- they continue mourning for ten days (with no elections happening)

- newly made monarch forgives the Spartans of all their debts

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Roles - war

- Herodotus - says that each king is a priest of Zeus - offerred sacrifices 

- there was no retiring age - often led the army at a very old age

- one king must always go to war, the other stays

- on an expedition the king was accompanied by two ephors who could arraign him if they saw fit

- first to go to war, last to return

- punished if behaved unspartanly

- expected to act as moral exemplats

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Roles - Peace/domestic

- chief preists, judges and lawgivers

- dual kingship - moderate individual ambition

- they wee seen as moderators between gods and men, conducted all public sacrfices 

- judges in legal affairs

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Roles - funeral rights

- Extrodinary lamentation - all info above

checks on power:

- dual kingship 

- oaths taken once a month given by ephors

- ephors came on campaign

- kings led the army - assembly decided on war/peace and ephors determined military levy

- kings could be fined, exiled and desposed

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