Kingdoms, Phylums and Class

  • Created by: ava.scott
  • Created on: 29-05-14 23:24



  • Unicelluar
  • Cell wall made from muerin
  • No membranous organelles inc nucleus
  • Circular DNA


  • Complex unicellular,  with membranous organelles


  • Multicellular
  • Network of threads (hyphae) forming Mycelium 
  • Cell wall made from chitin
  • Reproduction by spores without flagella
  • Some hyphae have 'cross walls' or septa
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  • Multicellular
  • Autotrophic with chloroplasts with photosynthetic pigment
  • Cell wall made from cellulose
  • Vacuoles with cell sap


  • Multicellular
  • No cell wall
  • Nervous coordination
  • Heterotrophic
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animalia phylum- annelida


  • Long thin segmented body
  • Fluid filled haemocoel
  • Close circulatory system with pigment
  • Thin skin with good blood supply
  • Primitive brain
  • Hydrostatic skeleton


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animalia phylum- arthropoda


  • Segmented body
  • Paired jointed legs
  • Thick exoskeleton made from chitin
  • Open circulatory system and cavity that surrounds organs
  • Well developed brain



  • doesnt grow so must be shed (ecdysis), leaving organism vulnerable
  • Reduces water loss
  • Place for muscles to join
  • Better support for smaller insects
  • protection from predators
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animalia phylum- chordata


  • Well developed brain (in a cranium) and nervous system
  • Rod or backbone
  • Closed circulatory system
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Chordata classes


  • Aquatic
  • Scales and gills
  • External fertilisation


  • Terrestrial and aquatic
  • Moist thin skin and primitive lungs for gaseous exchange
  • Young are aquatic with gills
  • External fertilisation
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Chordata classes


  • Terrestrial- dry scales impermeable
  • Lungs
  • Internal fertilisation, laid eggs with leathery shell
  • Trunk of body above ground


  • Similar to above,  with feathers and wings
  • hard shells


  • Skin with hair
  • Lungs
  • Internal fertilisation-live young birth and fed milk
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Marsupials- born very young and develop further in pouch feeding off milk.

Placentals- remain in womb until very developed, given nutrition by the placenta.

They have hair, live young who are fed with milk. They have developed lungs, brain and nervous function. 

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common ancestry- morphology

Theory of evolution suggests all organisms have a common ancestor, and therefore, many should show similar structural features.

Homologous features are said to have the same structure, although may have a very different function. An example is the pentadactyl limb in 4 classes of chordata (not fish.)

The pentadactyl limb has very different functions for different animals.

The whale have it as a fin, bats as a wing and humans as a hand. The more simiilar the structure of the limb, the more recently the organisms diverged in evolutionary history.

However, analogous features offer a risk, as they look the same, and have the same function but with very different structural origins.

convergent evolution results in analogous features

divergent evolution results in homologous features

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common ancestry- biochemical methods

DNA hybridisation- extract and compare bases in DNA between two organisms and the more similar they are  the closer they are related. 

immunological testing- when the antigens of onr species reacts with antibodies a precipitate is formed. the more precipitate the closer related.

protein sequencing- comparing protein sequence in the same protein of two different organisms. The less differences in proteins,  the closer the relation. 

DNA analysis- dna is extracted, cut up then mixed. this shows that chimpanzees and humans have 97.6% rhesus and humans have 91.1%

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They have the following 4 features that are unique to their class:

  • 6 paired legs
  • pair of antennae and compound eyes
  • gaseous exchange through gills or tracheae.
  • Many have wings

Some of these features have been secondarily lost e.g. no wings in fleas or lice.

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