King John and Innocent

HideShow resource information

INTRODUCTION

  • Despite notable periods of conflict- church-state relations genrally harmonious durning medievil period- as they needed eachother.
  • Tensions raised due to Georgian reforms- popularity of sacremental principle 
  • Previously these tensions came to the fore when a new Archbishop was appoinred or their was a clash in personality. 

Durning Johns reign: 

Death of Hubert Walter 13th July 1205 - sparked the first major crown-church clash. Realtions with innocent untill this point had be relatively good which TURNER ATTRIBUTES TO THE SKILLS OF HUBERT WALTER. 

Papal challenge:

  • Fluctuated between 1207-1213
  • Short term-interdict had little effect-John actually gained authoirty 
  • Longterm-John was brought to a heel by constant internal rebellion and external invasion-forced to hand over authority

Lost all theocratical authority but gained politically. 

1 of 10

BACKGROUND/ PREVIOUS DISPUTES

  • Crown-church clash fundementally arose from differing views of power balance.
  • Theocratic/sacremtal explinations...

Previous problems: 

Diverging theologies caused conflict between:

  • William Rufis & Anselm
  • Henry & Becket
  • In the main about Crowns authority iver Clergy: Judicial authority/appealsto rome/appoitment of church offices/advowson/excommunication of lay lords without royal permission.
2 of 10

JOHNS OBJECTION

JOHN REFUESE LANGTON:

  • Stranger to England- been living under the enemy Phillip
  • Went against Johns traditional right to appoint. 

LANGTON CONCECRATED 17TH JUNE 1207

  • Innocent ignored the objections
  • John refused to confirm his appoitment so Langton remained on the continent for 6 yrs

JOHN'S RESPONSE

  • Expel monks of Canterbury,Seize lands in Canterbury,Bar papal judges from English Courts

INNOCENTS RESPONSE:

Bishop of London,Ely,Worchester told to threaten John with Inderdict

JOHNS RESPONSE:

Skilfully delayed the imposition by delaying negotiations with bishops 'saving royal rights & liberties' 

3 of 10

INTERDICT- ADMIN CONSEQUENCES

Eventually took action: 23rd MARCH 1208

First serious imposition from the Papacy over England some negative effects: 

  • Suspension of ecclesiastical rites: Marriages/burials- JONES- 'The rhythm ordinary life was disrupted'

HOWEVER: even for ordinary people aspects of the interdict were mitigated- children could still be batisped.

John Himself: POSITIVE EFFECT!

  • Not a genral flee of Bishops, only London,Ely,Hereford,Worchester.
  • 5 elections held to fill vacant bishoprics durning interdict - Kings cadidate won 3.
4 of 10

INTERDICT- FINANCE CONCEQUENCES

Far from a challenge,actually strengthened it. 

  • Ordered a seizure of clerical property from those no longer providing a relgious service.He then allowed the lands to be redeemed in return for finacial gifts.
  • Ordered Clergy's mistresses to be held for ransom unless a fine was paid- many quickly paid the fine.

seen as a highly advantageous result of his dispute with the Church given John’s need for money and was certainly no threat to his authority over the Church.

WARREN: 'JOHN WAS NOT DISMAYED,HE WAS MERLY RICHER'

5 of 10

INTERDICT SUMMARY

General feeling of support for John.

  • Welsh Abbey said- many monks supported John 
  • Support from Barons as they too had been fighting the right to appoint church offices on their land-Advowson.Barons were so against the church John had to order that anyone who spoke or did eveil against the church would be hanged 'by the nearest oak tree'

TURNER: Much of the churches buissness continued as normal durning the interdict. 

6 of 10

INTERDICT SUMMARY

General feeling of support for John.

  • Welsh Abbey said- many monks supported John 
  • Support from Barons as they too had been fighting the right to appoint church offices on their land-Advowson.Barons were so against the church John had to order that anyone who spoke or did eveil against the church would be hanged 'by the nearest oak tree'

TURNER: Much of the churches buissness continued as normal durning the interdict. 

7 of 10

CONSEQUENCES OF EXCOMMUNICATION- Initial

Failure of interdict led to innocent delcalring an excommunication of John NOVEMBER 1209

Treatment of Church lands:

  • John persisted in resistance in a more HOSTILE manner...plundered it on a large scale.
  • The Cistercians suffered most out of the religious houses and were so broken that many houses had to disperse and the monks fled to other houses.  
  • By 1213 John controlled 7 bishoprics and over 12 abbeys, receiving all their revenue
  • Huscroft claims John received £66,000 from the Church throughout this period.

bishops fled: only one bishop left in England; Peter des Roches of Winchester

Rebellions:

  • In 1212 a revolt of the Welsh broke out.
  • 1212 rumour of Phillp Augustus planning invasion

Many dangerous events arose-John realised he needed to heal the breach.

8 of 10

CONSEQUENCES OF EXCOMMUNICATION-john submits

John's submittence

  • In May 1213 John agreed to accept papal demands and accept Langton as archbishop.  
  • 15 May 1213 John resigned England and Ireland to Innocent III and received them back as papal fiefs under the bond of fealty and homage in return for an annual tax (£666)
  • John’s actions bound England to the Roman church for more than 150 years.-LONG TERM

RESPONSE:

  • No overt opposition at the time in which he made the choices
  • Modern Scholars- Cheney a ‘diplomatic stroke of genius’ Painter calling it a ‘brilliant manoeuvre’
9 of 10

CONCLUSION

  • Dispute between John and Inncoent had brought more serious consequence England had ever enountered
  • Why? -Personality/lack of compromise

JOHN GAINED FROM HIS SUBMISSION TO THE CHURCH: 

  • Inncoent repealed MAGNA CARTER in 1215
  • Innocent became a friend and protector of John at the time he needed it most-Phillip Augustus threats
  • Helped pave the way for Johns invasion 1214
  • 'ultimatly the survival of his dynasty' 
10 of 10

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Britain in the Middle Ages resources »