Khrushchev 1956-64

Agriculture

Background:  Five Year Plans -based on on biological yields- were not accurate. Neglect of heavy industry and commercial goods.

Reforms:

Virgin Lands Scheme (1954) :  Increase cereal produced and increase of land cultivated. In 1950 96 million tonnes of land cultivated for the production og grain and by 1964 this was 165 million tonnes. Focused of farming machinery and fertiliser. 1953-64 production rose by thirty percent.

Issues: Approach- rushed. Soil erosion and crop rotation. Planning- central asia- windstorms. Drying and storage materials- crops rotted before they were distributed. 1963 - Harvest grain peoduction fell from 140 Million to 107 Million. private Land contributed for three percent of land which made up 30 percent of production

Motor Tractor Services: modernisation and farms had equipment for farming.Tractor increased from 314,000 to 814,000. Repair Servcies.

Listened to peasants, Sent advisors from Moscow. Peasant income rose x2 52 -8

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Industry

polcies with enthisiasm and focuses on light industry. Iron and Steel - war industry to light industry- light engineering and chemical work.

Four Year Plan 1954: focused on fertilisers. plastics, chemicals and comsumer goods. Electricity increased by thirty percent and comsumer goods increased by seventy percent from 1956-65. Disel and electric trains. Scientific and space developmment- Sputnik I 

BUT.. light industry was five percent below production target and fertilisers were 3.5 million tonnes under,

Burearucracy administrative system- central to local

Consumerism- command economy.- 1968 50 percent owned TV and washing machines

1955- 495,000 Tv Sets to 3,695,000 TV sets.

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Social and Cultural Reforms

Passports, peasants move from villages to cities. 50's and 60's cheap and basic residential blocks of low flats.- decay of peasantry. 

Censorship of arts- releaxed- late 50's circulation of 65,000 books- more than in the mid 20's. 1959- 159,000 libraries. Jazz and Pop music allowed. However modern art not allowed but the "official style" of art socialist relaism.

Working and living conditions- "argo town"- cheaply built. Principles of communal living abanndoned. 1956 minimum wage and in 1958 working day stabilized to seven hours.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

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Wider Context

Cold War- reduced size of army from 3.6 Million to 2.4 Million. Spent extra amry cash on misiles.

Germany: Western troops out of Berlin- 6 month ultimatum. 1961- Berlin Wall

Poland- Bierut in charge

Hungary- Nagy- tried to assert indepence for Hungary and wanted to Leave Warsaw Pact 

Yugoslavia- Tito- good relations

China- Mao Zedong communist- 1949. Gave seven percent of Russia aid. Returned Port Arthur and Daylon.

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Repression and Opposition

Police- MVD- ordinary criminals, KGB- in 1953- internation espoinage- Cold War

1960- 11,000 relased from Gulags.

Anti Party Group- first secretary base- Molotv, Kagonovich and Malenkov

protest- Novocherkaisk- 20 killed- workers

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Nature of the Government

Collective leadership: Malenkov (PM), Molotov (FS) and Bulgarian Deputy, Khrushchev (PS) and Beria (MVD)- executed bid for power

Malenkov- better relations with the West, improve living standards. Khrushchev forceful personality and outmanevered within 2 years. resigned grain requestioning.

Politburo- 1957 wanted to dissmiss Khrushchev as party secretary and he was forced to full vote. endured challenge.

De-Stalinisation-  justify more progressive economic measures. Peaceful co-existenence with the West. Absolve both khrushchev and others from their role in Stain's mistakes. Secret Speech at 20th Part Congress- "cult of personality" and fear.

Georgian Rebellion - 1956- rallies to mark Stalin's death and emerged into demonstrations to made chnages to central government in Moscow and give Georgia independence.

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