Keywords PT1 from "Lifespan Development" by P. Mitchel & F. Ziegler (2013)

  • Created by: fsward1
  • Created on: 22-05-19 15:06

What is Object Permanence?

Understanding that things in the world continue to exist even when you cannot sense them directly.

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What is "Solipism"?

Failure to distinguish between yourself and the rest of the Universe.

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What is "behaviourism"?

Psychology movement

  • No reference to the mind
  • Believe psychological phenomena can be explained by focusing only on behaviour, and the environment in which it occurs. 
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Explain "conditioning".

  • Controlling behaviour

  • Manipulating rewards and various stimuli within the environment
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Describe "reinforcement".

Any stimulus that when following behaviour, increases the probability that the organism will emit the same behaviour in the future.

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What is "deep structure"?

An innate grammatical structuring of language that is universal amongst humans, and unique to humans as a species.

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Define "innate".

An ability or trait that is with us from birth.

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What is "maturational unfolding"?

A genetically determined developmental progression.

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what is "biological preparedness"?

A genetically determined readiness to learn specific skills, such as walking.

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Define "Ethology".

The study of animals in their natural habitat.

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What is "egocentrism"?

Difficulty taking on board another's perspective.

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What is "Constructivism"?

Psychology theory

  • knowledge is actively generated by the individual rather than transmitted by another person or through one's genes.
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What is "nativism"?

Basic skills are hardwired at birth.

(Eg/ Chomsky believing babies are born with an innate knowledge of the language).

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What is the "motor cortex"?

  • Region of the frontal lobe of the brain
  • Responsible for the voluntary control of the muscles.
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Define "Autism".

  • Developmental disorder
  • Impairs individuals in socially connecting with others
  • Affects around one-hundredth of the population.
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What are the "executive functions"?

  • Involved in controlling one's own behaviour and own mental processes.
  • Located in frontal lobes.
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Describe the "mirror neuron hypothesis".

States:

  • when you observe someone doing something, the same brain areas will be active in your brain.
  • The brain areas mirror that of the person performing the action.
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What is "counterbalancing"?

  • Methodological technique
  • For neutralizing order effects in a repeated measures design.

eg/ participants have to perform under two conditions. A and B. Half the participants will perform A then B, the other half B then A. = counterbalancing. 

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What is "pragmatic"?

The form of language when used in a natural context.

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What is a "nonconserving answer"?

Wrongly judging that quantity has changed just because there is a superficial change in appearance.

eg/ the two glasses experiment by Piaget.

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Describe "yes bias".

A bias to answer all questions that require an answer of either "yes" or "no" as affirmative.

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What is "performance bias"?

The tendency to answer a question with an action instead of verbally.

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What is "intellectual realism"?

Phenomenon of children drawing what they know, rather than what they see.

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What is "operational intelligence"?

The process of solving a problem by working through logical principals. 

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What are "schemes" or "schemas"?

  • Mental operation
  • "building blocks of thinking" - p.42
  • guides action or allows us to work through a problem in a principled way

(principled = based on a given set of rules)

(eg. reflexes, the grasping reflex).

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Describe "assimilation".

Applying an existing scheme/schema to another/new task.

(eg. grasping reflex of a finger in the palm becomes grabbing objects etc).

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What is "accomodation"?

Modifying a schema/schema to adapt it to a new application.

(eg/ a baby grasps a finger, accommodates to grasp a rattle - moving fingers and grasp to be able to hold the rattle - accomodation).

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What is meant by "co-ordidation of schemes"?

Combining schemes to carry out an elaborate task, such as driving a car.

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What is meant by "equilibration"?

  • Motivational process
  • Compels us to strive for logical consistency. 
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What is "size consistancy"?

  • Perceptual mechanism
  • Able to appreciate an object is the same size, though it looks smaller in the distance.
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What is meant by "human sense"?

  • A task in which children misinterpret the purpose of the experimenter's questions.
  • coined by Margaret Donaldson.
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What is "level 1 & 2 perspective taking"

  • 1 = Understanding that an obstacle prevents another person from seeing what you can see.
  • 2 = Understanding how objects look from another vantage point, rather than your own.
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What is "inferrence by elimination"?

Finding the correct answer by ruling out alternatives.

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Describe "syllogism".

  • a category of logical problem.
  • a particular state can be determined from a general rule.

(eg/ all X's are Y's. John is an X, therefore he must also be a Y).

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What is "confirmational bias"?

Inappropriately seeking evidence in support of a hypothesis instead of seeking evidence that might falsify a hypothesis.

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What is a "selection task"?

  • a task which reveals illogical reasoning in adults.
  • devised by Watson & Johnson-Laird
  • demonstrated that most intelligent adults do not meet the ideal of scientific reasoning proposed by Piaget.
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What is "social constructivism"?

  • a theory proposed by Vygotsky
  • emphasizes the role of other adults (or a more competent person) in supporting the child to construct knowledge.
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What is an "unexpected transfer test"? Link?

  • a test of false belief (object moves from A to B without protagonists knowledge... where does "person" think the item is) by Perner and Wimmer.
  • Link = theory of mind
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What is a "deceptive box task"? Who developed it?

  • False belief task
  • A familiar container, such as a Smarties tube, contains something other than its normal content.
  • Perner, Leekam & Wimmer, 1987
  • Link - theory of mind
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What is an "appearance reality test"

  • A test in which an object has a deceptive appearance, as in a sponge painted to look like a rock.
  • Used to determine if a child understands the difference between appearance and reality.
  • Gopnik & Astington
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What is a "state change"?

  • EG Smarties being replaced with pencils as child watches.
  • The question following this will be the same as in a standard deceptive box test.
  • Test to see if child misinterpreted initial question/task.
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Describe "hindseight bias".

Believing you have known something all alongeven though you in fact only made the discovery recently.

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What is "high functioning Autism"?

Autism with measured intelligence in the normal range.

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What is "frontal syndrome"?

  • caused by damage to the frontal lobes.
  • disinhibition and lack of social sensitivity.
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Define "DSM" within developmental dissorders.

  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Assosiation. 
  • Lists features of various psychological disorders.
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What is "brain plasticity"?

The ability for unaffected parts of the brain to assume the activities of damaged parts of the brain.

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What is "hyperlexia"?

Unusually large vocab, relative to developmental level, especially on a certain topic (eg. Dinosaurs).

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What is "Echolalia"?

Meaninglessly repeating words or phrases that you just heard.

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What is "pronoun reversal"?

Confusion over whether I should be denoted as I or you.

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What is "alexia"?

Dyslexia acquired following neurological damage by accident or illness.

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