- Created by: fsward1
- Created on: 22-05-19 15:06
What is Object Permanence?
Understanding that things in the world continue to exist even when you cannot sense them directly.
What is "Solipism"?
Failure to distinguish between yourself and the rest of the Universe.
What is "behaviourism"?
- No reference to the mind
- Believe psychological phenomena can be explained by focusing only on behaviour, and the environment in which it occurs.
- Controlling behaviour
- Manipulating rewards and various stimuli within the environment
Any stimulus that when following behaviour, increases the probability that the organism will emit the same behaviour in the future.
What is "deep structure"?
An innate grammatical structuring of language that is universal amongst humans, and unique to humans as a species.
An ability or trait that is with us from birth.
What is "maturational unfolding"?
A genetically determined developmental progression.
what is "biological preparedness"?
A genetically determined readiness to learn specific skills, such as walking.
The study of animals in their natural habitat.
What is "egocentrism"?
Difficulty taking on board another's perspective.
What is "Constructivism"?
- knowledge is actively generated by the individual rather than transmitted by another person or through one's genes.
What is "nativism"?
Basic skills are hardwired at birth.
(Eg/ Chomsky believing babies are born with an innate knowledge of the language).
What is the "motor cortex"?
- Region of the frontal lobe of the brain
- Responsible for the voluntary control of the muscles.
- Developmental disorder
- Impairs individuals in socially connecting with others
- Affects around one-hundredth of the population.
What are the "executive functions"?
- Involved in controlling one's own behaviour and own mental processes.
- Located in frontal lobes.
Describe the "mirror neuron hypothesis".
- when you observe someone doing something, the same brain areas will be active in your brain.
- The brain areas mirror that of the person performing the action.
What is "counterbalancing"?
- Methodological technique
- For neutralizing order effects in a repeated measures design.
eg/ participants have to perform under two conditions. A and B. Half the participants will perform A then B, the other half B then A. = counterbalancing.
What is "pragmatic"?
The form of language when used in a natural context.
What is a "nonconserving answer"?
Wrongly judging that quantity has changed just because there is a superficial change in appearance.
eg/ the two glasses experiment by Piaget.
Describe "yes bias".
A bias to answer all questions that require an answer of either "yes" or "no" as affirmative.
What is "performance bias"?
The tendency to answer a question with an action instead of verbally.
What is "intellectual realism"?
Phenomenon of children drawing what they know, rather than what they see.
What is "operational intelligence"?
The process of solving a problem by working through logical principals.
What are "schemes" or "schemas"?
- Mental operation
- "building blocks of thinking" - p.42
- guides action or allows us to work through a problem in a principled way
(principled = based on a given set of rules)
(eg. reflexes, the grasping reflex).
Applying an existing scheme/schema to another/new task.
(eg. grasping reflex of a finger in the palm becomes grabbing objects etc).
What is "accomodation"?
Modifying a schema/schema to adapt it to a new application.
(eg/ a baby grasps a finger, accommodates to grasp a rattle - moving fingers and grasp to be able to hold the rattle - accomodation).
What is meant by "co-ordidation of schemes"?
Combining schemes to carry out an elaborate task, such as driving a car.
What is meant by "equilibration"?
- Motivational process
- Compels us to strive for logical consistency.
What is "size consistancy"?
- Perceptual mechanism
- Able to appreciate an object is the same size, though it looks smaller in the distance.
What is meant by "human sense"?
- A task in which children misinterpret the purpose of the experimenter's questions.
- coined by Margaret Donaldson.
What is "level 1 & 2 perspective taking"
- 1 = Understanding that an obstacle prevents another person from seeing what you can see.
- 2 = Understanding how objects look from another vantage point, rather than your own.
What is "inferrence by elimination"?
Finding the correct answer by ruling out alternatives.
- a category of logical problem.
- a particular state can be determined from a general rule.
(eg/ all X's are Y's. John is an X, therefore he must also be a Y).
What is "confirmational bias"?
Inappropriately seeking evidence in support of a hypothesis instead of seeking evidence that might falsify a hypothesis.
What is a "selection task"?
- a task which reveals illogical reasoning in adults.
- devised by Watson & Johnson-Laird
- demonstrated that most intelligent adults do not meet the ideal of scientific reasoning proposed by Piaget.
What is "social constructivism"?
- a theory proposed by Vygotsky
- emphasizes the role of other adults (or a more competent person) in supporting the child to construct knowledge.
What is an "unexpected transfer test"? Link?
- a test of false belief (object moves from A to B without protagonists knowledge... where does "person" think the item is) by Perner and Wimmer.
- Link = theory of mind
What is a "deceptive box task"? Who developed it?
- False belief task
- A familiar container, such as a Smarties tube, contains something other than its normal content.
- Perner, Leekam & Wimmer, 1987
- Link - theory of mind
What is an "appearance reality test"
- A test in which an object has a deceptive appearance, as in a sponge painted to look like a rock.
- Used to determine if a child understands the difference between appearance and reality.
- Gopnik & Astington
What is a "state change"?
- EG Smarties being replaced with pencils as child watches.
- The question following this will be the same as in a standard deceptive box test.
- Test to see if child misinterpreted initial question/task.
Describe "hindseight bias".
Believing you have known something all along, even though you in fact only made the discovery recently.
What is "high functioning Autism"?
Autism with measured intelligence in the normal range.
What is "frontal syndrome"?
- caused by damage to the frontal lobes.
- disinhibition and lack of social sensitivity.
Define "DSM" within developmental dissorders.
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Assosiation.
- Lists features of various psychological disorders.
What is "brain plasticity"?
The ability for unaffected parts of the brain to assume the activities of damaged parts of the brain.
What is "hyperlexia"?
Unusually large vocab, relative to developmental level, especially on a certain topic (eg. Dinosaurs).
What is "Echolalia"?
Meaninglessly repeating words or phrases that you just heard.
What is "pronoun reversal"?
Confusion over whether I should be denoted as I or you.
What is "alexia"?
Dyslexia acquired following neurological damage by accident or illness.