Key Words

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KEY APPROACHES

  • Chromosomes are the part of a cell that contains genetic information
  • Selective breeding is the artifical selection of male and female animals for a particular trait. These animals are then put together to breed and produce offspring. The offfspring are then observed to see whether the trait continues over successive generations
  • Law of Effect are events in the environment that produce rewards for some behaviours and not others. Behaviours that produce rewards are repeated whereas behaviours that result in punishments are not
  • Operant conditioning is learning due to the consequences of voluntary behaviour, through positive and negative reinforcement and punishment
  • Classical conditioning is learning due to the association of a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned, reflex response
  • Vicarious reinforcement is when learning is not a result of direct reinforcement or experience but rather an individual's observation of another person's experience
  • Mediating cognitive factors are the mental processes that occur in between a stimulus and response that influences our behaviour
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CONT.

  • Cognition- to know
  • Artifical intelligence iss the development of computer systems, or programs, to mimic human cognitive functioning
  • Free association is a method used whereby patients are encouraged to talk freely about their concerns and dreams so that the therapist can analyse any unconscious conflict
  • Congruence is a state of agreement or consistency
  • Conditions of worth- a child will only receive love and praise from its parents if it behaves in ways that are considered by them to be socially acceptable
  • Self-actualisation is the motive to realise one's full potential
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BIOPSYCHOLOGY

  • A synapse is the gap between the end of one neuron and the dendrites of the next neuron
  • A Neurotransmitter is a chemical substance released from a synaptic vesicle that affects the transfer of an impulse to another nerve or muscle
  • Localisation- specific areas of the cerebral cortex are associated with particular physical and psychological functions
  • Lateralisation is the dominance of one hemisphere of the brain for particular physical and psychological functions
  • The brain has a left and right hemisphere
  • Homeostasis is the process by which the body maintains a constant physiological state
  • Optic chiasm is the point at which the nerve fibres from both eyes converge
  • Ablation is a surgical procedure used to remove areas of the brain
  • Lesioning is a surgical procedure used to cut neural connections in the brain
  • Reticular formation is a complex network of fibres, extending from the core of the brainstem to the thalamus, involved in maintaining functions vital to life
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CONT.

  • Genotype is the genetic make-up of an individal
  • Phenotype is the characteristics shown by an individual that are a result of both genes and the environment
  • Heterozygous is when the genotype consists of two different genes for example Bb
  • Homozygous is when the genotype consists of two genes that are the same for example BB
  • Monozygotic: one zygote. These twins are formed when a fertilised egg cell splits into two and forms two separate embryos
  • Zygote is a fertilised cell (union of a sperm and egg cell)
  • Dizygotic: two zygotes. These twins are formed when two separate eggs both become fertilised by different sperm cells
  • Concordance is an agreement between the extent to which a pair of twins share similar traits or characteristics
  • Meta-analysis is statistical analysis of the results of a number of the same or similar studies
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GENDER DEVELOPMENT

  • Androgynous is displaying roughly equal levels of masculine and feminine traits/behaviours
  • Inventory is a list of statements used to test for certain characteristics in people
  • Transsexual: a person who desires to be a member of the opposite sex
  • Gender identity is an individual's perception of their own masculinity and/or femininity
  • Retrospective is from the past
  • Innate is in-born, present at birth
  • Cross-cultural research is investigations carried out across more than one society
  • Universal: occuring around the world
  • Gender role is the behaviours (masculine and feminine) than an individual displays
  • Ethnographic is the scientific description of specific cultures
  • Western society: mainly North American, European and Australasian countries
  • Socialisation is a process whereby individuals are taught and encouraged to adopt certain values and roles
  • Norms are standard or appropriate ways of behaving
  • Agents of socialisation are individuals and groups in society involved in the socialising of others
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CONT.

  • Sex-role stereotyping is treating males and females differently according to a set of expectations. Culturally determined beliefs about what a particular sex's gender role should be often an over-generalisation
  • Interactionist approach combines two or more persepectives to explain a behaviour or an event
  • Hormones are chemical substances produced by the body that control and regulate the activity of certain cells or organs
  • Embryo is an organism in the early stages of development
  • Gonads are sex organs (testes and ovaries)
  • Androgens are the group of male sex hormones
  • Oestrogen are the group of female sex hormones
  • Pre-natal is before birth
  • Foetus is a developing embryo (after 8 weeks) till birth
  • Hypothalamus is a small structure at the base of the brain that regulates many bodily functions
  • Cerebral Hemisphere is the 2 halves of the brain which specialises in different functions (left=language right=spatial ability)
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CONT.

  • Fine motor skills are practical skills requiring precise, small movements usually of the hands and fingers e.g. using scissors, typing, threading cotton through a needle
  • Adrenogenital syndrome is a set of symptoms associated with the excessive secretion of adrenal hormones
  • Adrenal glanes are a group of cells that produce and release hormones
  • Testerone is the main male sex hormone
  • Progesterone is a female hormone
  • Steroids are synthetic man-made hormones
  • Turner's syndrome is a disorder where a person has the atypical chromosome pattern XO
  • Klinefelter's syndrome is a disorder where an individual has the atypical chromosome pattern XXY
  • Reductionism is the belief that complex systems can be explained in terms of their components
  • Determinism is the belief that events are controlled by actions that come before them, therefore everything is predictable
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