Key points - Globalisation, modernity and post-mod
The englightenment project - through reason and science we can discover true knowledge and progress to a better society
modern society - nation-state, capitalism, mass production, scientific thinking, technology, individualism and the decline of tradition.
Globalisation - growing interconnectedness of societies
technological changes, economic changes, political changes, changes in culture and identity
post modernism - new era
No objective criteria to prove whether a theory is true
Everything is a metanarrative - just one version of reality
media = hyper reality
criticism of post modernism
ignores ruling class use of the media as ideological domination
wrong to claim people can't distinguish from media and reality
The late modernity - TLM
Todays rapid changes are not the dawn of a new, postmodern era, but a continuation of modern society.
Unlike post-modernism - TLM subscribe in the englightenment project
Giddens: Reflexivity and High modernity
2 key features that encourage globalisation and rapid change:
high modernity - disembedding - 'the lifting of social relations from local contexts of ineraction' (make interaction more impersonal)
Tradition and custom no longer serve as a guide to how we should act - continually re-evaluating ideas
Late modernity and risk
High consequence of risks, e.g enviromental harm. Beck 'manufactured' risks because they result from technology not nature.
However, unlike p.modernists. Giddens & Beck believe we can make rational plans based on objective knowledge to reduce these risks to achieve proggress.
Ev - not everyone can re-shape their lives after reflecting risks they face. E.g - a poor person who lives in a polluted area can't afford to just move house.
Marx theory of post-modernity
Like Becker and Giddens, James and Harvey believe in the enlightenment project of achieving objective knowledge to improve society.
Marxists also agree that society has moved from modernity to post modernity - however address this as the most recent stage of capitalism
customised products promote cultural diversity
leisure, culture and identity = commodities produced for profit.