Key Notes for Tsar and Lenin's Russia

Hey, these are the revision cards I made to help me remember key points I sometimes forget or want to focus on. They don't have all the detail.

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  • Created by: Terrie
  • Created on: 08-06-12 13:00

Russian Life

Nobles - 1% of population but own 75% of land

Church - reinforced Tsar rule; made him seem appointed by God

Woeking Class- 75% - oppressed by Cossacks- have little say

-poor wages/ working conditions/ long hours = WORKER DISCONTENT


-Bloody Sunday - 10,000 people and children - petition to Tsar -treatment like slaves - wanted 8 hour day + minimum wage of a rouble a day

-500 people died - massacre by Cossacks - lost Tsar support of peasants - no longer saw him as 'little father'

-Duma formed however - 3 Duma's (1906 and 1907) - 1st two Duma's dismissed by Tsar - tried to challenge power - 3rd Duma made of conservative politicians - did what Tsar wanted

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-part of 'staret' - holy man of god

-rasputin means 'disreputable one'

-known to be an alcholic/ ******/ womaniser

-discredited the romanov's

-influence over romanov's increased after stolypin's death in 1911

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Key notes on March Revolution

7th March - 20,000 Putilov steel workers on strike

10th March - 250,000 workers on strike

11th March - President of Duma; Rodizianko's telegram to Tsar; 'capital is in a state of anarchy' ACT NOW

12th March - Serious mutiny amongst troops

+ formation of 12 man committee - Prov Gov from Duma

+workers + soldiers (revolutionaries)= PETROGRAD SOVIET- unofficial Gov-  began to organise food supplies for city

14th March - Tsar lost support of army; tried to come back by train but was stopped by Revolutionaries

15th March - Tsar forced to abdicate - hands to Duke Michael - he also abdicates


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Dual Authority

March - Order No. 1

April - Lenin returned - disagreed with Prov Gov- wanted a 2nd revolution 

June offensive - attack against Austria failed - soldiers retreated - mutiny - death squads to execute deserters

July days - bolsheviks tried to seize power/ attempted 'coup' against gov - fails and leaders arrested - but party allowed to continue - now seen as main rev party

August - Kornilov Commander in Cheif - attempts pro Tsar/ right wing coup

-planned to get rid of Petrograd Soviet and take control of Prov Gov

-TURNING POINT; Bolsheviks asked to help - 250,000 Ref Army troops - Kornilov troops refuse to fight - Kornilov arrested

September - Bolsheviks win majority in petrograd soviet-3 mil in 2 months

-controlled mitilary committee of soviet

-Trotsky chairman of petrograd soviet

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Nov Revolution 1917 + Decrees

-Kerensky knew of Trosky's plans but couldn't do anything to stop him

-The army supplied the Bolsheviks with rifles from the St Peter and Paul Fortress

-Bolsheviks demanded total obedience from their members so they were well disciplibed 

-New GOV: Sovanarkom

-Decrees 1917:

NOVEMBER: :) Land, Peace, Work, Unemployed

DECEMBER: :( Press, Ban of main liberal party, Cheka, banking

:) Workers control; (all factories under elected commitees of workers) +marriage

March 1918- Treaty of Brest Litovsk - Trotsky dragged out peace talks - one of hardest treaties ever made - peace at any price

-26% of population, 76% iron and coal, 300 gold roubles

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Civil War 1918-1921

-Bolsheviks only really had strong support in Western Russia

-First whites were Czech legion; czech prisoners of war being transported across trans-siberian railway; mutinied 

-enemies of Bolsheviks, under Czech protection set up own gov's, such as KOMUCH- quickly organised enemies into a 'People's Army' and attacked towards Moscow-within 2 weeks had taken over all important towns in area

-Bol Gov took desparate measures; Trotsky ordered conscription; organised 'Red strategy' - 300,000 men led by pro tsar officers

Red's won: SLUG

Whites: fought in separate detatchments/ never came together as a united force/ dependant on support from abroad

Red's controlled internal lines of communication / heartlands of Russia - attacks and retreats could be managed without difficulty of transport or communication

+clear ideology 

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War Communism 1

-Introduced during Civil War to organize industry and food supplies for war + prevent near collapse of economy due to civil war

1) Keep Red Army supplied with food and weapons

2) Enforce a system of communism – sharing of wealth


1) -factories with more than 10 workers were nationalized –under gov control

Vesenkha  - gov body introduced – controlled what should be produced

-Experts were brought in to increase efficiency

2) Military discipline in factories

-everyone from 16-60 had to work except sick and pregnant women

-strikers shot -unemployed made to join labour armies- cut down trees etc

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War Communism 2

3) Private trading banned

-peasants no longer allowed to make a profit – surplus grain was requisitioned by gov- had to sell it to them at a fixed price

-peasants who refused (kulaks) were handed over to red army and shot or sent to labour armies

-1919: peasants started to sow less grain and breed fewer animals + hid surplus – led to food shortages in 1920 – gov had to send in armed requisitions to seize grain- 1921 – great famine: 7 mil starved to death in the Ukraine/ 25 mil living below subsistence levels

4) Inflation allowed - People encouraged to garter (buy with goods;food and fuel) over money

5) Strict rationing in cities - little food form workers - left cities industry declined

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-March 1921 - Kronstadt Navy rebellion - 10,000 workers

-Trotsky had to send army of 60,000 men across frozen Rivr Neva to defeat sailors - many rebel sailors imprisoned or executed


-N - National and relgious freedoms; Ukrainan language taught / bazzars reopened

-factories with less than 20 workers allowed to be run privately - NEPMEN

-But gov still controlled heights of economy/ largest industries; steel, iron

-E - Experts brought in for efficieny

-P - Gov stopped taking surplus - Peasants allowed to sell surplus for a profit but had to pay a 10% tax to gov - paid in crops - KULAKS

-those who produced more paid less tax - RAISED PRODUCTIVITY

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